Bulletin of the World Health OrganizationFor international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines. Classification and code of dangerous goods. The levels of most common substances can be measured at the exposure limit. Hygiene facilities and decontamination procedures Section 5. General considerations This requirement of section 5. This information has been compiled and summarized, country by country, on this page. For example, in the case of a routine shift length of 8 hours with an additional half-hour or three quarter-hour lunch break, the 8-hour work period is the TWA period, if there is no significant exposure over the lunch break.
Market Research Solutions
Some sugar content is easy to work out: But a ready meal of sweet and sour chicken can also contain more than 22g or five-and-a-half teaspoons, some of which is naturally occurring in the pineapple. And just to confuse things further, packaging previously showed guideline daily amounts GDA for men, women and children but this has been replaced by reference intakes RI - which, under European legislation, can only be shown for adults.
All methods of assessing a population's food intake have their limitations. Anyone who has tried to keep a food diary knows how difficult it is to remember every morsel consumed: For adults aged , the main sources are also confectionery and jams, soft drinks and cereals.
Scientists are still investigating whether there are direct causal links between high sugar intake and weight gain, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and other illnesses. What is known is that eating too many calories without enough exercise can lead to obesity - and obesity is a risk factor for other conditions. Among young children, the proportion who are obese has fallen but campaigners say more still needs to be done to reduce the amount of sugar children eat.
How much sugar do we eat? Image copyright Getty Images There is fierce debate about the role of added sugar in contributing to the obesity crisis.
But calculating how much sugar we eat is not as simple as it sounds. What are current guidelines? More on this story. Call to halve target for added sugar. How can I cut down on sugar? Water as only mealtime drink 'will combat child obesity'. Seven-a-day fruit and veg 'saves lives'. Revocation on surrender of patent Revocation of patents in other circumstances Commissioner to be given copies of orders Ceasing of innovation patents Termination of contract after patent ceases to be in force Certificate by Director as to associated technology Restoration of lapsed application Reinstatement of application as an international application Notice of prohibitions or restrictions on publication Jurisdiction of Federal Court Jurisdiction of other prescribed courts Commissioner may appear in appeals Powers of Federal Court Nominated persons and patentees Commonwealth and State authorities Exploitation of inventions by Crown Remuneration and terms for exploitation Exploitation of invention to cease under court order Supply of products by Commonwealth to foreign countries Declarations that inventions have been exploited Sale of forfeited articles Acquisition of inventions or patents by Commonwealth Assignment of invention to Commonwealth Prohibition of publication of information about inventions Effect of prohibition orders Disclosure of information to Commonwealth authority..
False representations about the Patent Office False representations about patents or patented articles Officers not to traffic in inventions Unauthorised disclosure of information by employees etc.
Other unauthorised disclosures of information Registration of particulars of patents etc Power of patentee to deal with patent False entries in Register Orders for rectification of Register Information obtainable from Commissioner Evidence—certificate and copies of documents Evidence of matters arising under PCT Registration of patent attorneys Acting or holding out without being registered Documents prepared by legal practitioners Documents prepared by a member of a partnership Time for starting prosecutions Deputy Commissioner of Patents Recovery of costs awarded by Commissioner Copies of examination reports to be communicated Making and signing applications etc Death of applicant or nominated person Exercise of discretionary power by Commissioner Costs where patent invalid in part Costs of attendance of patent attorney Publication of Official Journal etc Conduct of employees and agents of natural persons Fees payable under this Act Receipt of fees payable under New Zealand law Patents granted under Act Applications under Act Other applications and proceedings under Act The Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner This Act may be cited as the Patents Act Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods.
New Zealand Assistant Commissioner of Patents. New Zealand Commissioner of Patents. New Zealand Patents Minister. New Zealand patents official. Registrar of Companies of New Zealand. For the purposes of this Act, a complete application is to be taken to be associated with a provisional application if, and only if, the patent request filed in respect of the complete application identifies the provisional application and contains a statement to the effect that the applications are associated.
For the purposes of this Act, the following acts are not to be taken to be secret use of an invention in the patent area: Patentable inventions for the purposes of a standard patent. Patentable inventions for the purposes of an innovation patent. Certain inventions not patentable inventions for the purposes of an innovation patent. A patent is not invalid merely because: The invalidity of a patent in relation to a claim does not affect its validity in relation to any other claim.
A patent is not invalid, so far as the invention is claimed in any claim, merely because of: Objection cannot be taken to a patent request or complete specification in respect of an application for a patent of addition, and a patent of addition is not invalid, merely because the invention, so far as claimed, does not involve an inventive step, having regard to the publication or use of the main invention during the prescribed period.
Person may give notice of invalidity of an innovation patent. Commissioner to deal with notice in accordance with regulations. A patent application including a PCT application is to be taken to have been made on the filing date determined under the regulations.
Opposition to standard patent if a person other than nominated person eligible for grant of patent. Opposition to standard patent if nominated person eligible for grant of patent with other persons. Opposition to innovation patent if patentee not entitled to grant of patent but another person is. Opposition to innovation patent if patentee entitled to grant of patent with other person. Disclosures in prescribed documents may generally be taken into account.
Commissioner may require prescribed documents be made available. If the applicant does not withdraw the request before the day prescribed by the regulations, the application lapses: The Commissioner may disclose the result of any search made for the purpose of making a report under this Act. The Minister or any other person may, in accordance with the regulations, oppose the grant of a standard patent on one or more of the following grounds, but on no other ground: A patent may be granted to 2 or more nominated persons jointly.
The term of a standard patent is 20 years from the date of the patent. The term of an innovation patent is 8 years from the date of the patent. For this purpose, document includes a copy of a document. If a patentee makes an application for an extension of the term of a standard patent, the Commissioner must publish in the Official Journal a notice that the application has been made and is open to public inspection. The Minister or other person may not oppose the grant of the extension on any other ground.
If the Commissioner grants an extension of the term of a standard patent, the exclusive rights of the patentee during the term of the extension are not infringed: This Chapter does not apply in relation to innovation patents.
A fee is not payable for the renewal of a patent of addition. The fees payable after a patent of addition becomes an independent patent, and the dates when they become payable, are to be determined by reference to the date of the independent patent.
After the grant of an innovation patent, the Commissioner: The Minister, or any other person, may, in accordance with the regulations, oppose an innovation patent that has been certified and seek the revocation of it, on one or more of the following grounds of invalidity, but on no other: If relevant proceedings in relation to an innovation patent are pending, the Commissioner must not make a decision under this Part in relation to the patent without the leave of the court.
Amendment of complete specification not allowable if amended specification claims or discloses matter extending beyond that disclosed in certain documents. Certain amendments of complete specification are not allowable after relevant time. Meaning of relevant time . Amendment of innovation patent request not allowable in certain circumstances. Amendments of a kind prescribed by regulations not allowable.
Order for amendment during relevant proceedings. An amendment of a complete specification that is open to public inspection must be notified in the Official Journal.
The Commissioner or a court may, in interpreting a complete specification as amended, refer to the specification without amendment. The rights of a patentee are not infringed: Limit for product, method or process derived from patentee.
Certain threats of infringement proceedings are always unjustifiable. Courts power to grant relief in respect of threats made by the applicant for an innovation patent or the patentee of an uncertified innovation patent. Courts power to grant relief in respect of threats made by the patentee of a certified innovation patent. This Chapter provides for court orders requiring the grant of compulsory licences in respect of patented inventions.
Special provision is made for compulsory licences to exploit patented pharmaceutical inventions. This is to enable the manufacture of a pharmaceutical product in Australia for export to an eligible importing country, to address public health problems in that country. This Chapter also provides generally for the surrender of patents, and for court orders revoking patents. The Federal Court may make an order under this Part requiring the grant of a compulsory licence to work a patented invention.
The court may order a compulsory licence to be granted if the reasonable requirements of the public are not being met with respect to a patented invention.
The reasonable requirements of the public relate, broadly speaking, to whether Australian trade or industry is unreasonably affected by the actions of the patentee in relation to the manufacture or licensing of the invention or the carrying on of a patented process. The court may also order a compulsory licence to be granted if the patentee has engaged in restrictive trade practices in connection with the patent under the Competition and Consumer Act or under an application law within the meaning of that Act.
The court may order a patent to be revoked after an order for a compulsory licence has been made on the same grounds that apply to an order for a compulsory licence. The patentee must be paid an agreed amount of remuneration, or an amount of remuneration determined by the court. Those proceedings are in the Federal Court, which can only exercise the judicial power of the Commonwealth.
This section lets the court deal comprehensively with the proceedings without the need for a court of the State to determine whether the application law has been contravened. The Federal Court may make an order under this Part requiring the grant of a compulsory licence to exploit a patented pharmaceutical invention for manufacture and export to an eligible importing country. The court may order a compulsory licence to be granted if the proposed use of the pharmaceutical product is to address a public health issue in the eligible importing country: The order may be amended or revoked by another order of the court.
A patented pharmaceutical invention may be a patented product or a patented process: Can PPI be exploited if remuneration is not agreed or determined? Can PPI compulsory licence be revoked if remuneration is not agreed or determined? Without prejudice to any other method of enforcement, a PPI order operates as if it were embodied in a deed granting or amending a licence and executed by the patentee and all other necessary parties.
A PPI order must not be made that is inconsistent with a treaty between the Commonwealth and a foreign country. Nothing in this Part prevents the Federal Court from dealing with the following applications together: A patentee may offer to surrender a patent by giving the Commissioner written notice.
The Commissioner may accept the offer of surrender, and revoke the patent, after hearing all interested parties. If court proceedings are pending in relation to the patent, leave of the court, or the consent of the parties, is required. In addition, a court may revoke a patent on the following grounds: This Part also enables the Commissioner to appear and be heard in all proceedings under this Chapter.
An office copy of an order made under this Chapter must be served on the Commissioner by the Registrar or other appropriate officer of the court that made the order. A standard patent ceases if the patentee: To avoid doubt, a reference in this Chapter to the payment of a continuation fee or renewal fee by the applicant or patentee is taken to include a reference to the payment of that fee by a person other than the applicant or patentee.
The Commissioner may appear and be heard at the hearing of an appeal to the Federal Court against a decision or direction of the Commissioner even if the Commissioner is not a party to the appeal. On hearing an appeal against a decision or direction of the Commissioner, the Federal Court may do any one or more of the following: A reference in this Chapter to a nominated person or to a patentee includes a reference to the successor in title of the nominated person or patentee or an exclusive licensee of the nominated person or patentee.
A reference in this Chapter to the Commonwealth includes a reference to an authority of the Commonwealth and a reference to a State includes a reference to an authority of a State. In making the order, the court is to ensure that the legitimate interests of the Commonwealth or of the State are not adversely affected by the order. Where the Commonwealth has made an agreement with a foreign country to supply to that country products required for the defence of the country: Nothing in this Chapter affects the right of the Commonwealth or a State, or of a person deriving title directly or indirectly from the Commonwealth or a State, to sell or use an article forfeited under a law of the Commonwealth or the State.
The Commissioner, a Deputy Commissioner or an employee must not: The Register is to contain 2 parts as follows: Notice of any kind of trust relating to a patent or licence is not receivable by the Commissioner and must not be registered. The Personal Property Securities Act deals with the rights of purchasers of personal property including intellectual property such as patents that is subject to PPSA security interests.
See the following provisions of that Act: The Commissioner may give any person information about: Certain particulars relating to registrations in respect of PPSA security interests under the Personal Property Securities Act are admissible in evidence: A certificate signed by the Commissioner in relation to an international application, certifying that: For the purposes of this Act, a person is the Designated Manager if the person occupies, or is acting in, a position that: Offence—failing to notify lack of patent attorney director.
Offence—acting after 7 days without patent attorney director. Designated Manager may appoint a registered patent attorney. Designated Manager may remove incorporated patent attorney from Register. A legal practitioner must not prepare a specification, or a document relating to an amendment of a specification, unless: An incorporated patent attorney or an incorporated legal practice commits an offence if: A registered patent attorney commits an offence if: There is to be a seal of the Patent Office and impressions of the seal must be judicially noticed.
Exercise of power to require production of document or article. Costs awarded by the Commissioner against a party are recoverable as a debt. An application, notice or request required or permitted under this Act to be made or signed by a person may be made or signed, on behalf of that person, by a registered patent attorney. A prescribed court may, if it thinks fit, call in the aid of an assessor to assist it in the hearing and trial or determination of any proceedings under this Act.
In any proceedings in which the validity of a patent is disputed, the court may, if it is satisfied that some of the claims in the complete specification which are alleged to be invalid are not invalid but that other claims are invalid, apportion the costs between the parties to the proceedings as it thinks just.