Can heavy metals be removed from the supply?
Comparative intestinal lengths of ostriches, emus, and chickens; Body weights of ostriches and emus at selected ages; Nutrition guidelines for ostriches; Nutritional guidelines for emus; Concentrations of selected nutrients in ingredients used in feeds of ostriches and emus Example sentences containing 'poultry' These examples have been automatically selected and may contain sensitive content. Dobkin; Darryl Wheye However, at the moment that data sits only with you and your vet and isn't shared. Anestrus; Bovine Abortion; etc
Video: pronunciation of 'poultry'
Many of these products are in our homes and actually add to our quality of life when properly used. The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed.
To a small extent they enter our bodies via food, drinking water and air. As trace elements, some heavy metals e. However, at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination e. Aluminium Although aluminium is not a heavy metal specific gravity of 2.
It is readily available for human ingestion through drinking water. Studies began to emerge about 20 years ago suggesting that aluminium might have a possible connection with developing Alzheimer's disease when researchers found what they considered to be significant amounts of aluminum in the brain tissue of Alzheimer's patients.
Although aluminum was also found in the brain tissue of people who did not have Alzheimer's disease, recommendations to avoid sources of aluminum received widespread public attention.
As a result, many organizations and individuals reached a level of concern that prompted them to dispose of all their aluminum cookware and storage containers and to become wary of other possible sources of aluminum, such as soda cans, personal care products, and even their drinking water. However, the World Health Organization WHO concluded that, although there were studies that demonstrate a positive relationship between aluminum in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease, the WHO had reservations about a causal relationship because the studies did not account for total aluminum intake from all possible sources.
Although there is no conclusive evidence for or against aluminum as a primary cause for Alzheimer's disease, most researchers agree that it is an important factor in the dementia component and most certainly deserves continuing research efforts.
Therefore, at this time, reducing exposure to aluminum is a personal decision. Arsenic Arsenic is the most common cause of acute heavy metal poisoning in adults. Arsenic is released into the environment by the smelting process of copper, zinc, and lead, as well as by the manufacturing of chemicals and glasses. Arsine gas is a common byproduct produced by the manufacturing of pesticides that contain arsenic. Arsenic may be also be found in water supplies worldwide, leading to exposure of shellfish, cod, and haddock.
Other sources are paints, rat poisoning, fungicides, and wood preservatives. Cadmium Cadmium is a byproduct of the mining and smelting of lead and zinc. It is used in nickel-cadmium batteries, PVC plastics, and paint pigments. It occurs mostly in association with zinc and gets into water from corrosion of zinc-coated "galvanized" pipes and fittings. Copper Copper at very high levels is toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, loss of strength or, for serious exposure, cirrhosis of the liver.
Water turns blue-green in colour as the corroded copper comes off the inside of the pipes and appears in the water as a precipitate. This reaction only occurs in a small percentage of cases.
Iron Iron is a heavy metal of concern, particularly because ingesting dietary iron supplements may acutely poison young children. Ingestion accounts for most of the toxic effects of iron because iron is absorbed rapidly in the gastrointestinal tract. The corrosive nature of iron seems to further increase the absorption. Mercury Mercury is generated naturally in the environment from the degassing of the earth's crust, from volcanic emissions.
It exists in three forms: Atmospheric mercury is dispersed across the globe by winds and returns to the earth in rainfall, accumulating in aquatic food chains and fish in lakes. Mercury compounds were added to paint as a fungicide until These compounds are now banned; however, old paint supplies and surfaces painted with these old supplies still exist.
Mercury continues to be used in thermometers, thermostats, and dental amalgam. I place a second empty tray on top of the seed tray upside down like a roof and I cover the top tray with a wet towel.
This will protect the seeds and sprouts from drying out. I make sure that the towel is kept wet or moist all the time. As soon as the grass is tall enough to hit the roof of the top tray, I remove that top tray and towel. During the first 2 or 3 days, the tray needs watering everyday, but not too much or the roots will rot. Wheatgrass can grow year-round but it doesn't grow well in the hot summer. It grows best in cooler weather.
During summer, I keep my wheatgrass trays in the shade with good ventilation to prevent overheating and to prevent mold or fungus. Each kit starts you out with enough organic barley seed, organic soil, organic minerals, and growing trays to grow five trays of Barley Grass- yielding at least 60 ounces of barley juice 1 month supply at 2 ounces a day. Each Barley Grass kit comes with simple easy to follow growing and harvesting instructions.
The growing instructions teach you to grow barley grass in the most nutritious and simple way possible! To insure the highest possible mineral content and barley grass yield, we have included an organic forest compost mixture and Azomite, an organic all natural mineral that insures that your barley grass contains all of the trace minerals required by the human body for maximum health. These durable black growing trays can be reused over and over again. Drain holes and easy portable size make these trays perfect for growing grass even in your own kitchen.
Each tray of barley grass will yield 12 to 14 ounces of juice. This mixture is created using organic compost, and peat moss. This mix will allow you to increase your growing yield as well as increase the nutrition of your grass. Compost your spent soil flat and use it over and over. The solid content of juice made from wheatgrass is 70 percent chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is often referred to as "the blood of plant life" and has almost the same chemical structure as haemoglobin oxygen transport molecules in red cells in human blood , according to studies done in The difference between the two is that in human blood the metallic element of the haemoglobin is iron, while in chlorophyll this atom is magnesium.
Chlorophyll goes into the red blood cells immediately. The red cell count was returned to normal within 4 to 5 days of the administration of chlorophyll in animals which were known to be extremely anaemic. The article recommends the following clinical uses for Chlorophyll - to clear up foul-smelling odours, neutralise infections, heal wounds, hasten skin grafting, cure chronic sinusitis, overcome chronic inner ear inflammation and infection, reduce varicose veins and heal leg ulcers, eliminate impetigo and other scabby eruptions, heal rectal sores, successfully treat inflammation of the uterine cervix, get rid of parasitic vaginal infections, reduce typhoid fever, and cure advanced pyorrhoea in many cases.
Nutritionist Bernard Jensen lauds the virtues of Chloryphyll because of the magnetic and electrical quality of the raw enzymes it contains. Earp-Thomas, 15 pounds of fresh wheatgrass is equivalent in nutritional value to pounds of the choicest vegetables. Birscher, a research scientist, called chlorophyll "concentrated sun power. Birscher, nature uses chlorophyll as a body cleanser, rebuilder and neutralizer of toxins.
Wheat grass juice can dissolve scars that are formed in the lungs from breathing acid gasses. The effects of carbon monoxide is minimized since chlorophyll increases hemoglobin production. Wheat grass juice helps to reduce high blood pressure as the juice helps to reduce toxins from the body and gives the blood iron which helps circulation. It purifies the blood. A small amount of wheatgrass in the human diet helps prevent tooth decay.
Tooth decay is the result of other degenerative changes in the body. Gargle with wheatgrass juice for toothaches. Gargle with wheatgrass juice for a sore throat. Research scientist Dr Birscher called chloryphyll "concentrated sun power. Chloryphyll increases the function of the heart, affects the vascular system, the intestines, the uterus and the lungs".
Caldera Greens , are a premium source of organically grown,alkaline-forming, enzymatically-alive, super foods which help promote proper pH balance and proper immune function. Wheatgrass has broad effectiveness, but its three most therapeutic roles are: As a food it is very nourishing and restorative with such a complete range nutrients that it can, by itself, sustain life.
Wheatgrass earned its reputation from people with terminal illnesses who took it at the eleventh hour of their lives, after conventional medicine left them with no hope. But you can take it as part of a long range prevention and health maintenance program. Some people who try grass juice find that they just cannot tolerate wheatgrass juice.
It is extremely detoxifying and makes some people nauseous every time they drink it. These people may find that they can tolerate barley grass juice. It is milder, although quite bitter, compared to the sweetness of wheatgrass juice. Barley grass is one of the green grasses. The young barley leaves have a tremendous ability to absorb nutrients from the soil.
When barley leaves are inches high, they contain all the vitamins, minerals, and proteins necessary for the human diet, plus chlorophyll. Barley contains a multitude of vitamins and minerals. Its juice is seven times richer in Vitamin C than an equivalent weight of oranges, five times richer in iron than spinach, ten times richer in calcium than milk, is a significant source of Vitamin B, and contains 15 times as much protein as an equivalent amount of milk.
A research pharmacologist from Japan, Dr. D believes that the key to the nutritive value of this supplement is not just the nutrient content of the concentrated extract, but its biochemical form which promotes more effective assimilation. What really sets this powdered barley juice apart from other food supplements, he says, are the thousands of live enzymes.
The anti-aging enzyme superoxide dismutase SOD is one of these. SOD aids in digestion and metabolism by helping to disperse vitamins and minerals into the blood stream to be absorbed by the body. Richard Cutler, a biophysicist at the National Institute of Aging has shown that the life span of many mammalian species, including man were found to be directly proportional to the amount or SOD contained in the cells.
The animals with the longest life spans and man were found to have the highest levels of SOD. SOD acts as a cellular anti-oxidant, protecting against radiation and chemical free-radicals from pollution, as well as acting as an anti-inflammatory agent and preventing cellular damage following heart attacks. Hagiwara and Biologist Dr. Jasuo Hotta, a specialist of gene engineering at the University of California at La Jolla, found that when powdered barley juice was added to damaged cells, the DNA within the cells repaired itself twice as quickly as DNA in cells receiving none.
Current theories are that both cancer and aging result when genes fail to repair themselves. Moreover, when the barley juice supplement was added to cells before they were subjected to radiation and a carcinogen, Hotta says the repair rate was easily three times as fast as normal.
Hagiwara claims, the findings may eventually help to prevent cancer, aging, or both. Experiments showing the ability of powdered barley juice to repair damaged cells, neutralize the effects of carcinogens and radiation, and retard the aging process have all been done on laboratory cell cultures and animals. While many people report improvement in a wide variety of physical problems, no controlled tests have been done on humans.
The improvements noticed are the effects o[ detoxifying the body and providing the proper nutritional elements in a form readily absorbed by the body. I had had chronic fatigue for many years and had tried almost every herb, vitamin, and healing modality available in health food stores. Later, I attended the Ann Wigmore Institute in Boston and then began growing wheatgrass commercially for juice bars and health food stores. I noticed a great increase in energy, enough to allow me to operate my business, which involved working ten to twelve hours per day.
Recently research has unveiled a wealth of other possible benefits of green barley leaves. Extracted compounds have found to have hypercholesteromic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ulcer properties. A new antioxidant, 2"GIV, has been isolated and reported to have antioxidant activity equal to or superior to vitamin E.
Finally, studies have shown that when green barley juice is added to injured cells, the cells' DNA repairs itself rapidly. This may contribute to preventing the changes that often lead to cancer, rapid aging, and cell death. Daniel B Mowry, Ph. Herbalists have used alfalfa for many different purposes.
The largest known terror-bird species grew nearly 10 feet 3 meters tall and weighed 1, pounds kilograms. Nature Video - Hummingbirds: Magic in the Air. Why so many small birds? However, more than half of all bird species weigh less than 38 g. Generally, small-bodied species are also more abundant more individuals than large-bodied species. The same patterns have been documented for several groups of organisms, e.
The very unequal distribution of body sizes in evolutionary lineages could be the outcome of biased evolution, with natural selection favoring small size. This hypothesis has received a lot of discussion in the recent literature, but has thus far not has been convincingly demonstrated. Another possibility is that small-bodied species speciate faster. However, statistical analyses accounting for historical relatedness of present-day species indicate no relation between body size and the rate of speciation.
Finally, instead of little by little, the dominance of small species may have arisen suddenly, when approximately 65 million years ago presumably a large meteorite hit the earth, causing mass extinctions. However, analysis of body sizes and genetic differences of extant species reveals that while avian species numbers were approximately halved, the catastrophe affected small and large species equally.
Thus, the reason why most species are small does not seem to be due to differential rates of speciation or extinction. Rather, the cause appears to be in the tempo and mode of evolution.
Analyses of the body sizes of living birds suggest that most differences in body size between species arise at the moment of speciation. Differences between small-bodied species are smaller than between large-bodied species and this difference probably also has its origin at the moment of speciation. Consequently, groups of small species stay small, whereas groups of large species are more variable in body size, so that in the end most species are small Bokma , Bokma Despite variation in size, all living birds exhibit a remarkable similarity because of their or their ancestor's adaptations for flight.
The success of birds, as a group, is in large part due to this ability to fly! Flight is, however, demanding and the bird body shows several modifications for this mode of locomotion, including lightness, streamlining see European Starling below , strength rigid skeleton and strong, efficient muscles , and efficient energy utilization.
The skeleton of birds shows numerous modifications for the demands of flight: Schematic cross-section through a bird bone.
Vertebrae of a Wood Duck Aix sponsa and a Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis showing the outer layers of compact cortical bone surrounding the trabecular bone. The vertebrae of Ruddy Ducks have more compact bone and less trabecular bone. More compact bone and less trabecular bone makes bones, and diving ducks, heavier and, therefore, makes them more efficient divers Figure from Fajardo et al. Representative skeletons showing the morphological differences in the rib cage associated with different forms of locomotion in A a walking species, Cassowary Casuaris casuaris ; B a non-specialist, Eagle Owl Bubo bubo ; and C a diving species, Razorbill Alca torda.
Uncinate processes are short in walking species, of intermediate length in non-specialists and long in diving species. In all photographs cranial is to the left; scale bar, 5 cm. Functional significance of the uncinate processes in birds -- Uncinate processes are bony projections that extend from the vertebral ribs of most extant birds. In , Zimmer postulated that the uncinate processes played some role during inspiration. Other hypotheses have linked these processes with stiffening or strengthening the rib cage or providing attachment sites for muscles stabilizing the shoulder.
Recent electromyographic studies of Giant Canada Geese confirmed Zimmer's hypothesis by demonstrating that these processes are integral component of the ventilatory mechanics of birds being involved in both inspiration and expiration Codd et al.
The processes are associated with fleshy parts of the Mm. Given that the processes provide attachment sites for these important respiratory muscles, any change in uncinate morphology may have a significant effect on ventilation.
The length of these processes is functionally important; longer uncinate processes increasing the mechanical advantage of the Mm. Morphological studies of four bird species showed that the uncinate process increased the mechanical advantage by factors of 2—4. An examination of variation in skeletal parameters in birds with different primary modes of locomotion non-specialists, walking and diving revealed that uncinate length is more similar in birds that have the same functional constraint, i.
Uncinate processes are short in walking birds, long in diving species and of intermediate length in non-specialist birds. These results demonstrate that differences in the breathing mechanics of birds may be linked to the morphological adaptations of the ribs and rib cage associated with different modes of locomotion. The forelimbs of another flying vertebrate lesser short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis are very different from those of birds and now-extinct reptiles, pterosaurs , could also fly.
The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints.
Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency, were derived. Birds significantly outperformed the bats in both metrics, likely due to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency.
A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, whereas the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints.
Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for birds and bats may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently, and migrate longer distances than bats.
Crouching turkey, hidden dragon. Analysis of the toe claws of species of birds revealed that claw curvature increases as tree foraging becomes more predominant.
Sword-billed Hummingbird - Colombia. Rhea Rhea americana skeleton Source: Uncinate processes arrows of a a running bird, the Cassowary Casuaris casuaris , b a flying bird, the Eagle Owl Bubo bubo , c a diving bird, the Razorbill Alca torda ; analysis indicates that uncinate processes are shorter in running, long in diving, and intermediate in all other birds, d Oviraptor philoceratops , e Velociraptor mongoliensis.
Anterior is to the right in all figures. Scale bars, 5 cm. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight.
Furthermore, recent work on Canada Geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration.
The study by Codd et al. The muscles of birds have also been modified by natural selection to meet the demands of flight:. Tendon of the supracoracoideus passing through the foramen triosseum and inserting on the humerus From: Right wing of an Atlantic Puffin. Kovacs and Meyers Changes in pectoral muscle size due to simulated raptor attack compared with control treatment gull , shown for each of five trials.
The direction of each arrow reflects the treatment order predator after gull or vice versa. Ruddy Turnstones build pectoral muscle after raptor scares -- To cope with changes in the environment, organisms not only show behavioral but also phenotypic adjustments. This is well established for the digestive tract. Van den Hout et al. In an indoor experiment, Ruddy Turnstones Arenaria interpres were subjected to an unpredictable daily appearance of either a raptor or a small gull as a control.
Ruddy Turnstones experiencing threat induced by a flying raptor model, longer than after similar passage by the gull model, refrained from feeding after this disturbance.
Pectoral muscle mass, but not lean mass, responded in a course of a few days to changes in the perceived threat of predation. Pectoral muscle mass increased after raptor scares. Taking the small increases in body mass into account, pectoral muscle mass was 3. This demonstrates that perceived risk factors may directly affect organ size. Examples of the eight main types of avian ecosystem service providers. Andean Condor, Vultur gryphus Patagonia, Chile.
The ecological functions of birds Sekercioglu -- Birds are mobile links that are crucial for maintaining ecosystem function, memory and resilience. Avian ecological functions encompass all three major linkages: Seed-dispersing frugivores and pollinating nectarivores are genetic linkers that carry genetic material from one plant to another or to habitat that is suitable for regeneration, respectively.
Piscivorous birds are resource linkers whose droppings transport aquatic nutrients to terrestrial environments. Grazers, such as geese, and predatory birds, such as insectivores and raptors are trophic process linkers that influence plant, invertebrate and vertebrate prey populations, respectively. Ecosystem engineers, such as woodpeckers are non-trophic process linkers that modify their environment by physically transforming materials from one state to another.
Mobile link categories are not mutually exclusive. Birds, particularly colonial species e. Thus, many bird species are both trophic and physical process linkers. Piscivorous bird colonies can carry out all of these linkages as these birds can consume fish, deposit nutrients, engineer ecosystems via burrow construction and even disperse seeds that are adhered to their feet.
Birds also benefit humans by providing important ecosystem services such as: II - Bird Flight I. The avian nature of the brain and inner ear of Archaeopteryx. Birds as models of aging in biomedical research.
A statistical test of unbiased evolution of body size in birds. Why most birds are small - a macro-ecological approach to the evolution of avian body size. Why do pigeon feathers repel water? Hydrophobicity of pennae, Cassie-Baxter wetting hypothesis and Cassie-Wenzel capillary-induced wetting transition. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science Rival species recast significance of 'first bird. New evidence on the colour and nature of the isolated Archaeopteryx feather.
A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds. Activity of three muscles associated with the uncinate processes of the giant Canada Goose Branta canadensis maximus.
Journal of Experimental Biology Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B The biology of color. Tenectomy of the supracoracoideus muscle to deflight Pigeons Columba livia and Cockatiels Nymphicus hollandicus.
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery I nfrared analysis of contour feathers: Journal of Thermal Biology Journal of Anatomy Mesozoic aviary takes form. The hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos.