Nutrition Guide

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Prebiotic (nutrition)
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Nutrition for Seniors

The macronutrients are carbohydrates , fiber , fats , protein , and water. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons.

Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose to complex polysaccharides starch. Fats are triglycerides , made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone.

Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids , some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible with the expenditure of energy to glucose and can be used for energy production, just as ordinary glucose, in a process known as gluconeogenesis.

By breaking down existing protein, the carbon skeleton of the various amino acids can be metabolized to intermediates in cellular respiration; the remaining ammonia is discarded primarily as urea in urine. Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides , disaccharides , or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer sugar units they contain.

They constitute a large part of foods such as rice , noodles , bread , and other grain -based products, also potatoes , yams, beans, fruits, fruit juices and vegetables. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units.

Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates. This, however, is not accurate. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram.

However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer which is indigestible as humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it.

There are two subcategories: Whole grains, fruits especially plums , prunes , and figs , and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber. There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet.

Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it. Insoluble fiber, found in whole wheat flour , nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis ;— the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digest along the digestive tract.

Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the intestines.

This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.

The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain. A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms , bonded to a glycerol.

They are typically found as triglycerides three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded , so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length.

Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated one double-bond or polyunsaturated many double-bonds. Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans -isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called partial hydrogenation.

There are nine kilocalories in each gram of fat. Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid , catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid , in addition to providing energy, represent potent immune modulatory molecules. Saturated fats typically from animal sources have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia. Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature such as butter or lard , while unsaturated fats are typically liquids such as olive oil or flaxseed oil.

Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance. Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so. However, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet.

An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids— omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids —seems also important for health, although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive.

Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins , which have roles throughout the human body. They are hormones , in some respects. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA , or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins e.

The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins e. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health.

In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.

Moreover, the conversion desaturation of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme deltadesaturase , which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin up-regulation and glucagon down-regulation. The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore, the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation , and mitosis i.

Proteins are structural materials in much of the animal body e. They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids , which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair.

The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins protein retention and to replace damaged proteins maintenance. As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet.

Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential an animal cannot produce them internally and some are non-essential the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds.

About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet.

A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids especially those that are essential is particularly important in some situations: A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. It is possible with protein combinations of two incomplete protein sources e.

However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces , sweating , and by water vapour in the exhaled breath. Therefore, it is necessary to adequately rehydrate to replace lost fluids. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6—8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.

Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. For healthful hydration, the current EFSA guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2. These reference values include water from drinking water, other beverages, and from food.

The EFSA panel also determined intakes for different populations. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity.

Dehydration and over-hydration - too little and too much water, respectively - can have harmful consequences. Drinking too much water is one of the possible causes of hyponatremia , i. Pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram.

For distilled spirits , a standard serving in the United States is 1. A 5 ounce serving of wine contains to calories. A 12 ounce serving of beer contains 95 to calories. Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods because other than calories, these contribute no essential nutrients.

The micronutrients are minerals , vitamins , and others. Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms, [70] other than the four elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules.

The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals , which often occur as ions in the body. Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells.

Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.

Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals". Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes. Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes. Vitamins are essential nutrients, [70] necessary in the diet for good health. Vitamin D is an exception, as it can be synthesized in the skin in the presence of UVB radiation , and many animal species can synthesize vitamin C.

Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre , scurvy , osteoporosis , impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health , among many others. Phytochemicals such as polyphenols are compounds produced naturally in plants phyto means "plant" in Greek. In general, the term is used to refer to compounds which do not appear to be nutritionally essential and yet may have positive impacts on health.

To date, there is no conclusive evidence in humans that polyphenols or other non-nutrient compounds from plants have health benefit effects. While initial studies sought to reveal if nutrient antioxidant supplements might promote health, one meta-analysis concluded that supplementation with vitamins A and E and beta-carotene did not convey any benefits and may in fact increase risk of death.

Vitamin C and selenium supplements did not impact mortality rate. Health effects of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as polyphenols were not assessed in this review. Animal intestines contain a large population of gut flora.

In humans, the four dominant phyla are Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , Actinobacteria , and Proteobacteria. Bacteria in the large intestine perform many important functions for humans, including breaking down and aiding in the absorption of fermentable fiber, stimulating cell growth, repressing the growth of harmful bacteria, training the immune system to respond only to pathogens, producing vitamin B 12 , and defending against some infectious diseases.

There is not yet a scientific consensus as to health benefits accruing from probiotics or prebiotics. Carnivore and herbivore diets are contrasting, with basic nitrogen and carbon proportions vary for their particular foods. Many herbivores rely on bacterial fermentation to create digestible nutrients from indigestible plant cellulose, while obligate carnivores must eat animal meats to obtain certain vitamins or nutrients their bodies cannot otherwise synthesize.

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. Some elements are directly involved in plant metabolism. However, this principle does not account for the so-called beneficial elements, whose presence, while not required, has clear positive effects on plant growth.

A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum is considered an essential plant nutrient if the plant cannot complete its full life cycle without it.

There are 16 essential plant soil nutrients, besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in air, and hydrogen , which is obtained from water. Plants uptake essential elements from the soil through their roots and from the air consisting of mainly nitrogen and oxygen through their leaves.

Green plants obtain their carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air by the process of photosynthesis. Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. These hydrogen ions displace cations attached to negatively charged soil particles so that the cations are available for uptake by the root.

In the leaves, stomata open to take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen. The carbon dioxide molecules are used as the carbon source in photosynthesis. Although nitrogen is plentiful in the Earth's atmosphere, very few plants can use this directly. Most plants, therefore, require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow. This is made possible by the fact that largely inert atmospheric nitrogen is changed in a nitrogen fixation process to biologically usable forms in the soil by bacteria.

Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given clone. Elements present at low levels may cause deficiency symptoms, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high. Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa.

Canada's Food Guide is an example of a government-run nutrition program. Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs.

Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups.

Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government.

Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U. The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education.

It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being.

Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families. It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise.

Acetylcholine memory neurotransmitter, levels can be increased with the use of choline and cdp-choline pills. Does it have anti-aging properties? This brain booster is found in Mind Power Rx mind enhancing formula. Acetylcysteine antioxidant protects the liver from toxins and drugs, for instance acetaminophen Tylenol overdose.

Acne a blemish on dermatologists Are there foods that can reduce inflammation of the skin? AHCC immune-support mushroom extract used in cancer treatment. Allergy practical and natural suggestions provided for symptom reduction, do herbal remedies help reduce allergy symptoms? Alpha lipoic acid powerful antioxidant and useful for a person with diabetes.

Find out about the important R form of lipoic acid. Alzheimer's disease are some supplements as helpful as pharmaceutical drugs? Amazon herbs from the rainforest, undiscovered healing plants await hidden in the deep jungle.

Amino acids -- are individual amino acid supplements useful, and which conditions can they benefit? Amla Ayurvedic herb used for blood sugar and cholesterol management. Andrographis immune herb for the common cold and viruses. Antioxidants should you take any? Wwill they slow aging?

What is the right dosage and how often? Aphrodisiac natural herbs and nutrients that really work! These aphrodisiac herbs may take a couple of days to start being effective, unlike Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra which work the same day but have more side effects.

Arginine nitric oxide producing amino acid, does it reduce blood pressure or benefit heart disease? Is it effective as a treatment for erectile dysfunction? Arjuna ancient heart helper used in India. Arrhythmia heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmia, there are ways to reduce your risk and thus avoiding the use of dangerous prescription medications.

Arthritis natural alternatives to Motrin, Aleve, and other medications. What about the benefits of glucosamine, chondroitin, CMO, curcumin, boswellia, or a combination formula such as Joint Power Rx? Artichoke leaf extract health benefit for cholesterol.

Ashwagandha laid-back Ayurvedic lovemaking, found in Passion Rx, also a good antioxidant and it helps with relaxation. Asparagus extract supplement is being studied as a liver protector against alcohol and toxins.

Astaxanthin one of the important carotenoid antioxidants, what is the right dosage? Some claim it helps with vision, eyesight improvement, joint aches, skin health, preventing sunburn Asthma breathe a clear sigh of relief with natural remedies, ways to decrease inflammation so you can improve your lung function.

Astragalus immune system support herbal pills. Athlete's foot there's hope and a possible cure, if you are patient and continue the treatment for a prolonged period.

Autism some dietary options are worth a try although this is a very difficult condition to treat and I do not have a miracle cure. Ayurvedic herbs used for hundreds or thousands of years by Ayurvedic doctors who have gathered enormous herbal medical knowledge and still use these herbs today to treat various medical conditions. More pages that start with the letter A include: Safety of natural supplements: Sometimes people assume because a product is natural, it is also safe.

Some of these natural compounds can have potential side effects and they can interact with prescription medications. Bacopa monnieri, Ayurvedic brain support herb for mental enhancement and memory improvement.

Banaba plant from the Philippines for blood sugar management. Benfotiamine supplement health benefit. Beta glucan for immune system support. Bilberry has powerful anthocyanins. Bipolar disorder balancing the ups and downs. Black cohosh for menopause. Boswellia for arthritis and inflammation reduction Breast cancer natural ways to prevent or treat, plus a discussion of mammography testing and frequency of mammograms. Butterbur has been studied in allergy, asthma, and migraine headache.

B vitamins the Bs get an A, a review of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and others. Why do you recommend taking a "vitamin supplement holiday"? After all, we continue to take in vitamins daily from our food without apparent harm? We ingest quite a variety of vitamins and minerals through our diet, often in small, well balanced proportions. Many multivitamin supplements have high amounts of certain vitamins and minerals and not necessarily in the same balance the body is used to through foods.

Hence, to be cautious, I find a reasonable approach is to take breaks. Other doctors or scientists certainly have different opinions. Calcium how much do you need? High dosages, such as to 1, mg were recommended by doctors for many decades to women with osteoporosis, but it is possible that high amounts could lead to damage to blood vessels or increase the risk for heart attack. Limit daily intake from supplements to no more than to mg a day.

Cancer natural steps to reduce the severity of this serious disease or perhaps reduce the incidence. Caralluma extract appetite suppressant, does this succulent supplement help you lose weight? Carnitine energy booster, helps fight fatigue Carnosine anti-aging nutrient? Chinese herbs and their potential as treatment for various medical conditions Chlorella health benefit Cholesterol Natural ways to lower cholesterol levels with dietary supplements and the possible avoidance of statin medications which can cause muscle damage.

Choline memory nutrient Chondroitin cartilage extract for arthritis, often used together with glucosamine Chromium helpful mineral in diabetes Chronic Fatigue Syndrome mystery gradually being understood better Chrysin is a flavonoid Cinnamon , does it help with blood sugar control?

Colostrum immune enhancer CMO for joint pain, short for cetyl myristoleate Common Cold practical tips to reduce the severity and frequency of winter misery Constipation is there an "empty colon" to "happy brain" connection? Co Q10 for heart, energy, antioxidant Coral Calcium do scientists approve? Cordyceps famous fungus Creatine for big muscles; look good in the mirror, impress your friends, partner An updated Dietary Guidelines for Americans singled out 10 nutrients that Americans may be missing.

They include calcium, vitamin D, potassium, fiber, vitamins A, C, E and K, along with choline and magnesium. Damiana Mexican passion plant? Deer antler velvet Lapp dance enhancer? Depression move aside, Prozac Diet Rx may help you decrease your appetite. Fatty acids Other components. Aspects of fat digestion and metabolism. Digestion, absorption and transport Metabolism of fatty acids Essential fatty acids Biological roles Oxidation of fatty acids.

Global trends in the availability of edible fats and oils. Current consumption of fat Factors explaining consumption trends Shifts in fat consumption Conclusion. Processing and refining edible oils. Rural vegetable oil production Large-scale production Potential side reactions during high-temperature processing Physical losses Fat modification processes Other considerations Conclusions. Selected uses of fats and oils in food.

Lipids in early development.

3 in 5 babies not breastfed in the first hour of life