NLiS Country Profile: Afghanistan

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The Code was formulated in response to the realization that such marketing resulted in poor infant feeding practices, which negatively affect the growth, health and development of children and are a major cause of mortality in infants and young children. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: World Public Health Nutrition Association. The survey investigates training in three key areas of maternal, infant and young child nutrition, namely growth monitoring and promotion, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, and management of severe or moderate acute malnutrition. All of it has been conducted using rats. Currently no data are available. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6—8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.

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Nutrition Guide

Too much protein can have adverse irreversible effects such as gout and then renal failure. Moderation is the key with beans. I do add well rinsed chick peas to my birds' diet once or twice a week. Doing so can be very dangerous, as several varieties of beans are acutely toxic when uncooked. Varieties known to be toxic include soy, black, red, yellow wax, and kidney beans.

Cooking destroys the hemaglutin toxin. I do give my birds well rinsed cooked chickpeas once or twice a week up to 5 each. Avoid chicken bones and any other meat bones since the marrow is extremely high in cholesterol. Second hand smoke will have a detrimental effect upon the general health of your bird. Non-stick pots, pans and utensils can kill your birds if heated beyond a certain temperature.

With a well-rounded diet, you might only need to do this once or twice a week. An all-pelleted diet would not require supplementation. NEVER put vitamins or supplements in the drinking water despite what the manufacturer guidelines state - because: Birds generally don't drink that much, so you don't know how much they are getting. They can cause bacteria to form quickly in the water.

They lose potency quickly in water. If the bird bathes in the water, feathers can get sticky. A good probiotic or acidophilus will act to keep the bird's gut flora at a ph level for proper absorption of food. While it might not be necessary in most cases, it doesn't hurt and is necessary after a round of antibiotics or in a state of stress. Use only if medically necessary under the advice of your vet.

Perhaps because of the amount of powder dust that their bodies produce, African Greys can easily become calcium deficient. This can be manifested by seizures, poor muscle control and coordination, and falling off their perches. Don't assume that the cause of these symptoms is lack of calcium until you've had blood work done by your vet. Treating with calcium is tricky. Too much can result in death.

This is why a well-balanced diet with vitamin supplements is so important. Amazon pet birds have a propensity for gaining too much weight over the years resulting in such conditions as fatty liver, sore feet, and more unless they are active aviary fliers. Therefore, their caloric and sugar intake should be kept low.

Pellets should be given very sparingly, and only non-colored pellets. Too much can cause toe-tapping and other unwanted habits. Hyacinth and Greenwing Macaws need higher fat content. Their diets should consist of mixed nuts including high fat macadamias in shell, and plenty of produce including palm nuts. Scarlets and Blue and Gold Macaws should also have a diet of mostly nuts in shell and produce. This small bird cannot tolerate pellets well and should be on a diet of seed mix and produce.

Rosies should only be kept in large aviary flights. They tend to develop fatty tumors if not fed properly. Sprouts should be a major part of their diet. Please submit species specific articles to us here.

One of the advantages of Australian aviculturalists is that we see parrots all the time feeding in the wild, and many studies have been done on their feeding habits.

Ignoring specialised birds such as lorikeets, Eclectus mainly fruit and some rare tropical rainforest birds, almost all of our wild parrots feed on seed as their dominant food source.

Originally of course it would have been the seed of our native grasses, shrubs and trees, but parrots are very adaptable, and many species are happily eating seeds from introduced plants, including unfortunately grain crops. It is this latter adaptation of course which leads to conflict with farmers and the shooting of many galahs, SC2's and corellas.

I might add that one of their favourite crops is sunflower! I have often watched flocks of budgies in Central Australia some flocks with thousands of birds industriously picking away on the fallen seed ie fully ripe on the ground from native grasses and ignoring the fresh green seed on the plant above their heads. You want to supplement the right stereoisomer, rather than a random pile of ketone types. Usually in test tube chemistry, you get a mix of stereoisomers often around half one type, and half another type , unlike our body, which only uses and makes one version.

Some people like to think of ketone bodies as the fourth energy source for humans in addition to carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Ketosis, which just means having more ketone bodies than normal, should not be confused with ketoacidosis , which is a potentially dangerous metabolic situation of uncontrolled ketosis.

If it senses acid levels rising as happens in ketosis , it responds by buffering with more alkaline molecules such as bicarbonate , changing blood levels of CO2, absorbing hydrogen ions, or telling the kidneys to excrete more dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium ions.

This usually happens in diabetics and alcoholics, since their normal metabolic mechanisms may not work properly. For the average healthy person, dietary ketosis or even brief fasting is generally safe. How do we get into ketosis? Ketogenesis We can make our own ketone bodies naturally, through the process of ketogenesis. Our ancestors kicked off ketogenesis the good old fashioned way: Ketosis is essentially an effect of fasting. This means that many of the health effects of fasting may be due to ketosis itself, rather than something like energy restriction.

This may have to do with our energy-hungry human brains. About 20 percent of our overall energy intake is devoted to feeding our brains. And it may be this particular evolutionary adaptation — which perhaps began as a way to keep the thinking factory upstairs working when food was scarce — that also enables the brain-benefiting effects of the ketogenic diet. Stored glucose our sugar-based fuel is actually rather heavy. Our body prefers to store most of our excess energy as body fat.

When we eat normally, our brain gets enough energy from glucose that can easily pass the blood-brain barrier. By the way, the relative heaviness of stored glycogen is why many people report fast weight loss on a ketogenic or low-carb diet: Unfortunately, this water and glycogen comes right back once we start eating normally again. Most people frown on starving children with epilepsy, so a ketogenic diet is the next best thing.

Many people like to measure their ketosis with Ketostix, which test for ketones in the urine. Therefore, you may see different readings on the Ketostix, regardless of what is actually happening in your body.

Supplement with ketones If ketones are what we want, why not just take them instead of making our own by fasting or cutting out carbohydrates? This has a lot of cool possibilities. Check back in 10 years. The buzz is that ketone supplements can make you thin and cure whatever ails you. Actually, research on this topic goes back to the s. All of it has been conducted using rats. Here are the findings. A recent study found that ketone supplementation extended survival in mice with metastatic cancer.

For now, almost no studies on ketone supplementation have used human clinical trials. Will ketosis help me? Ketogenesis and ketosis are easy to study. Trust me, we scientists can barely keep the grad students from contaminating the super-purified water by leaving the lid off the jug, never mind organize an evil cabal of ketosis deniers.

To be fair, the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs in the late s onward did lead to less interest in dietary ketosis as a treatment for epileptic children. In these specific situations, a ketogenic diet or a structured intermittent fasting program done under close medical supervision for a specific objective, may be a useful as part of a multi-pronged treatment program that probably should include other therapeutic tools such as medication or other well-established health procedures.

Could help in some cases, but should be done with a clear purpose and carefully monitored. Ketones may help, in part, because they decrease oxidative stress, boost antioxidants and scavenge free radicals. Oxidation is a natural part of cellular metabolism, but too much oxidation, too fast, without the balance of antioxidants, contributes to many metabolic and other diseases. If we can slow and regulate oxidation, it may improve our health and longevity.

Neurodegeneration and brain injuries We know ketosis for epilepsy is a win — can ketosis help other types of brain illnesses and injuries? These metabolic and neourodegenerative diseases show common features, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. The presence of ketones also seems to improve outcomes from traumatic brain injury TBI. However, right now, most of these studies have been done on rats.

See above about getting medical supervision from someone other than Dr. We know that caloric restriction CR improves longevity in most organisms studied.

We know that intermittent fasting seems to have some of the same benefits, sometimes. For now, any longevity benefits would be mostly speculative. And your th birthday cake would have to be a block of butter. Could we possibly enable people to tap into their stored body fat more effectively, and require less re-fueling from stuff like sugary energy gels?

You increase fat oxidation, spare glycogen, produce less lactate and use less oxygen at submaximal rates. It seems that combining ketones with carbs, rather than exclusively using one or the other, might offer some benefit. Then they drank the other half of their drink and biked as far as they could in 30 minutes.

Supplementing with a combination of carbohydrates and ketones may improve performance in aerobic competitions. Some intriguing possibilities, particularly for aerobic performance, but to date there very little evidence to improve overall athletic performance.

Low-carb advocates in the late s and early s thought maybe they had stumbled on the key to fighting flab: Insulin is mainly a storage hormone: Its job is basically to help nutrients get into cells. For one thing, it got some of us unhooked from processed sugary and starchy treats, and thinking more about fiber content and healthy fats. Unfortunately, insulin is not the only player. Nor does insulin act alone. Energy storage is governed largely by our brain , not a single hormone.

The other upside to the low-carb approach was that people often ate more protein and more fat. Which means we eat less. Which means we lose fat. Lower the carb intake, and our body will eventually release some water and glycogen. You can usually purchase good quality pellets OxBow , Purina High Fiber… and hays from local feed stores, or online from our store. Some rabbit vets also sell high quality pellets, and often, local rabbit rescues will sell hays and pellets to help supplement the high costs of rescue what we do.

It is important to feed your rabbit a daily variety of fresh vegetables to help balance out the nutritional needs in his diet. All vegetables should be fresh, washed and organic whenever possible. Humans do not generally consume the tops of these vegetables, so little consideration is given to what pesticides are sprayed on them and they could be very dangerous or fatal to your rabbit.

To make sure your rabbit gets the necessary nutrients offer him at least three different vegetables daily and make sure one or more contain Vitamin A. Never give fruit to dieting bunnies. Too much sugar can make your bunny fat, because excess energy a by-product of sugar consumption is converted to — fat! Feeding your rabbit a limited amount of high fiber pellets, abundant fresh grass hays and a daily assortment of fresh vegetables is a key factor in keeping your rabbit healthy.

It is important to divide the pellets and vegetables between the morning and evening meals, while having hay and fresh water available at all times. And remember, exercise is just as important as diet in keeping the rabbit gut functioning and healthy. A rabbit should get a minimum of 3 — 5 hours out of cage exercise every day. Take all dietary changes slowly. Quick changes to the diet can cause diarrhea or an overgrowth of that bad bacteria in the gut.

Also keep in mind that different rabbits have different dietary needs. Younger rabbits, elderly rabbits, smaller breeds such as the Netherlands Dwarf, large breeds like the Flemish Giant and long haired rabbits all have different needs and you should consult your Rabbit Vet for more specific information. I would also like to thank the House Rabbit Society for their invaluable contributions to rabbit veterinary medicine, as well as for their endless information on general rabbit care.

Ann McDowell, DVM Most people think that rabbit pellets were especially formulated for their pet rabbit, but this is not the case. Rabbit Digestion Digestion begins in the mouth. The Importance of Fiber and a Proper Diet When your rabbit is fed an improper diet that is, one that does not contain an adequate amount of [indigestible] fiber or one that is too high in carbohydrates the Gastro-Intestinal GI tract cannot function properly and it begins to shut down, causing various degrees of what is called GI stasis.

Prevention is Definitely Worth a Pound of Cure: Good vegetables and fruits for your rabbit References Cheeke, Peter R. Rabbit Feeding and Nutrition. Feeding Recommendations for the House Rabbit. The Veterinary Clinics of North America, Sluggish Motility in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Parsnip has Come Back from Afar. Sun Blossom's Emergency Spay.

3 in 5 babies not breastfed in the first hour of life