To edit an existing country group, click on the Edit link in the current selection panel in right side. Students must complete one of the following courses, for a total of 3 semester credit hours:. The student will graduate with a baccalaureate degree in health or public health while earning a certificate in public health from UTHealth Houston SPH. Singer, Merrill; Erickson, Pamela I. Hemoglobin A1c HbA1c , a measure of long-term glycemic control, was measured after three months.
The infection damages the immune system, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS and eventually, death. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Symptoms may include fever, headaches, chills, and nausea.
Each year, there are approximately million cases of malaria worldwide, most commonly among children and pregnant women in developing countries. In , about million children were underweight, and undernutrition contributes to about one third of child deaths around the world. Infection can further contribute to malnutrition.
Violence against women has been defined as: Although statistics can be difficult to obtain as many cases go unreported, it is estimated that one in every five women faces some form of violence during her lifetime, in some cases leading to serious injury or even death. For example, the rate of type 2 diabetes , associated with obesity , has been on the rise in countries previously plagued by hunger. In low-income countries, the number of individuals with diabetes is expected to increase from 84 million to million by More than one billion people were treated for at least one neglected tropical disease in They are variously caused by bacteria Trachoma, Leprosy , viruses Dengue,  Rabies , protozoa Human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas , and helminths Schistosomiasis, Onchocerciasis, Soil transmitted helminths.
Global interventions for improved child health and survival include the promotion of breastfeeding, zinc supplementation, vitamin A fortification, salt iodization , hygiene interventions such as hand-washing, vaccinations, and treatments of severe acute malnutrition. Many populations face an "outcome gap", which refers to the gap between members of a population who have access to medical treatment versus those who do not.
Countries facing outcome gaps lack sustainable infrastructure. In the private sector, highest- and lowest-priced medicines were Treatments were generally unaffordable, costing as much as 15 days wages for a course of the antibiotic ceftriaxone.
Journalist Laurie Garrett argues that the field of global health is not plagued by a lack of funds, but that more funds do not always translate into positive outcomes. The problem lies in the way these funds are allocated, as they are often disproportionately allocated to alleviating a single disease. The Global Health Security Agenda GHSA is "a multilateral, multi-sector effort that includes 60 participating countries and numerous private and public international organizations focused on building up worldwide health security capabilities toward meeting such threats" as the spread of infectious disease.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the bibliographic database, see Global Health database. Timeline of global health. Infant mortality and Child mortality. Maternal health and Reproductive health. Am J Public Health. Why Global Health Matters. J Public Health Policy. Public Health and Preventive Medicine 15th ed. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79 8 , Global health is public health. The Lancet, , Global health impacts of floods: Epidemiologic Reviews, 27 1 , Disease and Demography in the Americas.
The global economic burden of noncommunicable diseases. Program on the Global Demography of Aging. Archived from the original on Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform". Annu Rev Public Health. Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 3 March Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival". Textbook of International Health 3rd ed.
Malnutrition refers to all deviations from adequate and optimal nutritional status, including energy undernutrition and over-nutrition obesity is a form of malnutrition. The term 'undernutrition' is used to refer to generally poor nutritional status, but also implies underfeeding. Eur J Clin Nutr. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The United Nations Population Fund. Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists. Washington DC, United States: Accessed September 19, Addressing violence against women and achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
World Health Organization; Peanut is a small annual dicotyledon herb growing up to a foot above the ground. It is thought to have originated in the Central Americas and from where it spread to rest of the world through Spanish explorers. Today, it is one of the widely cultivated oilseeds and established principal commercial crop in China, India, African nations, and the United States of America.
Peanut plant takes approximately to days to produce the crop after sowing its seed. The process of peanut development is quite interesting! Its yellow flowers, after self-pollination, develop into "ovaries" called pedicels , which elongate rapidly to turn downward to bury several inches deep underground, from where the fruits develop into peanut pods we know. To harvest, the entire plant including roots dug out of the soil. Each plant may hold fruit pods. The pods have a thick, wrinkled outer shell with constrictions as in bean pods.
Each peanut kernel is covered with a papery thin, brown layer and can be split into two halves as in any other legumes. Bambara groundnuts Vigna subterranea L. Verdc are different from American peanuts Arachis hypogaea in that they appear somewhat like round cowpeas.
Bambara groundnuts are indeed one of the popular legume crops in many African regions, providing much-needed protein, fat and other essential nutrients of vegetable origin. Peanuts are rich in energy calories per g and contain health benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants and vitamins that are essential for optimum health.
They compose sufficient levels of monounsaturated fatty acids MUFA , especially oleic acid. Research studies suggest that the Mediterranean diet which is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids help prevent coronary artery disease and stroke risk by favoring healthy serum lipid profile. Peanut kernels are a good source of dietary protein; compose fine quality amino acids that are essential for growth and development. Research studies have shown that peanuts contain high concentrations of polyphenolic antioxidants, primarily p-coumaric acid.
This compound has been thought to reduce the risk of stomach cancer by limiting the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Peanuts are an excellent source of resveratrol, another polyphenolic antioxidant. Furthermore, studies suggest that resveratrol may reduce stroke risk through altering molecular mechanisms in the blood vessels reducing susceptibility to vascular damage through decreased activity of angiotensin, a systemic hormone responsible for blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure , and by increasing production of vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide.
It has been found that boiled peanuts have two and four-fold increase in isoflavone antioxidants biochanin-A and genistein content, respectively. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. The nuts are packed with many important B-complex groups of vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, and folates.
The nuts are a rich source of minerals like copper, manganese, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium. Just a handful of peanuts per day provide enough recommended levels of phenolic antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, and protein. Peanuts can be available in the markets year around. In the stores, different forms; shelled, unshelled, salted, and sweetened can be found for purchase. Try to buy unshelled intact outer shell nuts instead of processed ones.
They are generally available in airtight packs and bulk bins. The pods should feature compact, off-white color healthy-looking shell, uniform in size, and feel heavy in hand. They should be free from cracks, mold, and spots and free of rancid smell.