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Products in the Store are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Clinical endpoint Virulence Infectivity Mortality rate Morbidity Case fatality rate Specificity and sensitivity Likelihood-ratios Pre- and post-test probability. International Journal of Medical Sciences: You can remove the red capsule stims on off days, or if you train at night. These bodies are mainly driven by responding to regulatory requirements, such as supporting the cosmetics testing ban in the EU by validating alternative methods.
Tried putting the hose in the gas tank as far as it would go, tried it halfway in, tried it barely in, followed directions perfectly - keeping my finger over the end of the outside hose like it said. Even used a stick to hold open the little inside cover in the tank in case it was cutting off the flow. Also, they need to change the packaging. A part of the hose was crimped in the package so had to try to work out the crimp before even attempting to use. Do not waste your money. Needed a siphon to empty 7 gallons from my generator.
This siphon baffles me that it is even being sold. After about half a gallon siphoned I had to stop due to the amount of gas I was losing onto the garage floor.
Boy was I mad! It had started leaking right away after I had squeezed the bulb a few times to get it going. I had gas all over my hand. I thought maybe it would stop once it started flowing but NOPE! What a mess I made and also got gas all over my shoes. How do I get that out? Complete waste of money and my time to try to use it. Not worth driving back to try to return. Tossed in the trash. I actually bought this for my Christmas tree, which is in a small tree stand on a table.
It is a popular pump for your above ground pool and works efficiently with a motor capable of producing 0. The flow rate is impressive with the ability to handle This sand filter pump uses a 6-function control valve that ensures proper filtration and allows you to rinse, backwash, drain, re-circulate, and close the system at the same time.
A nice feature is the addition of a hour timer, which means you can automate the process and relax while the pump does its job. The strainer basket is reliable and is large enough to hold the leaves. There is also a ground fault circuit interrupter that ensures added safety. The availability of a couple of 1. Everything about this pump is good, but some people believe that it could have been quieter. The motor is efficient and comes with a double-sized seal for an extended performance.
It is nice to see that it comes in a corrosion-proof housing, which means you do not have to worry about using it in any weather or climate conditions. Interestingly, the motor comes with automatic thermal overload protection. You will not have an issue with pool maintenance because it contains an extra-large basket along with a drain plug.
It is a nice choice, but you may find the price to be a bit on the higher side. The Pentair is a reasonably good buy, especially because it is extremely easy to install.
In fact, it is hard to find a variable speed pump that is easier-to-install than this model from Pentair. It can easily run on V, so no rewiring is ever needed. If your pool requires a 1. It is worth mentioning that the Pentair is not the quietest pump available in the market. Still, it is not overly loud — expect more of a grunt than a whining. It is a popular aboveground pool pump that is known for its industrial-size strainer basket.
You can collect loads of debris and remove it with utmost ease. Throw in a heavy-duty motor in the picture, and you have a pump that performs exceptionally well. The motor comes with automatic thermal overload protection, so it is going to serve you for long. With a high-performance impeller installed, the PowerFlo Matrix works great to prevent clogging by debris and leaves. Interestingly, it is possible to change the pump to filter setting as per your requirements.
A 6ft cord is also included in the pack, which is nice. The only concern is that some people are not entirely happy about the build quality.
It could have been better for sure. The Ecostar by Hayward is an energy-efficient pump, mainly because you can adjust its speed to suit your needs. This variable-speed pool pump uses a TEFC motor for better reliability and efficiency. The addition of a touchpad control screen further adds to the ease of use. It comes equipped with an extra large basket to ensure you can collect a large amount of debris and leaves before you need to clean it.
You will also like its impressive auto-priming capability that allows for a suction lift of up to 10ft. The only issue is that you cannot make the company to honor the warranty if you install the pump yourself. The extent to which animal testing causes pain and suffering , and the capacity of animals to experience and comprehend them, is the subject of much debate.
Since , in the UK, every research procedure was retrospectively assessed for severity. The five categories are "sub-threshold", "mild", "moderate", "severe" and "non-recovery", the latter being procedures in which an animal is anesthetized and subsequently killed without recovering consciousness. The idea that animals might not feel pain as human beings feel it traces back to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes , who argued that animals do not experience pain and suffering because they lack consciousness.
Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that although the argument that animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings has strong support,  some critics continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined. It states "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals.
On the subject of analgesics used to relieve pain, the Guide states "The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol".
Accordingly, all issues of animal pain and distress, and their potential treatment with analgesia and anesthesia, are required regulatory issues in receiving animal protocol approval. Regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible, especially for terminal experiments. Methods of euthanizing laboratory animals are chosen to induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide , by being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anesthesia.
Sedatives or anesthetics such as barbiturates can be given intravenously , or inhalant anesthetics may be used. Amphibians and fish may be immersed in water containing an anesthetic such as tricaine.
Physical methods are also used, with or without sedation or anesthesia depending on the method. Recommended methods include decapitation beheading for small rodents or rabbits. Cervical dislocation breaking the neck or spine may be used for birds, mice, and immature rats and rabbits. Maceration grinding into small pieces is used on 1 day old chicks.
Captive bolts may be used, typically on dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs and rabbits. It causes death by a concussion to the brain. Gunshot may be used, but only in cases where a penetrating captive bolt may not be used. Some physical methods are only acceptable after the animal is unconscious.
Electrocution may be used for cattle, sheep, swine, foxes, and mink after the animals are unconscious, often by a prior electrical stun. Pithing inserting a tool into the base of the brain is usable on animals already unconscious.
Slow or rapid freezing, or inducing air embolism are acceptable only with prior anesthesia to induce unconsciousness. Basic or pure research investigates how organisms behave, develop, and function. Those opposed to animal testing object that pure research may have little or no practical purpose, but researchers argue that it forms the necessary basis for the development of applied research, rendering the distinction between pure and applied research—research that has a specific practical aim—unclear.
Fruit flies, nematode worms, mice and rats together account for the vast majority, though small numbers of other species are used, ranging from sea slugs through to armadillos. Applied research aims to solve specific and practical problems. These may involve the use of animal models of diseases or conditions, which are often discovered or generated by pure research programmes.
In turn, such applied studies may be an early stage in the drug discovery process. Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues or organs from one species to another, as a way to overcome the shortage of human organs for use in organ transplants.
Documents released to the news media by the animal rights organization Uncaged Campaigns showed that, between and , wild baboons imported to the UK from Africa by Imutran Ltd, a subsidiary of Novartis Pharma AG, in conjunction with Cambridge University and Huntingdon Life Sciences , to be used in experiments that involved grafting pig tissues, suffered serious and sometimes fatal injuries.
A scandal occurred when it was revealed that the company had communicated with the British government in an attempt to avoid regulation. Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical companies testing drugs, or by contract animal testing facilities, such as Huntingdon Life Sciences , on behalf of a wide variety of customers. Toxicology tests are used to examine finished products such as pesticides , medications , food additives , packing materials, and air freshener , or their chemical ingredients.
Most tests involve testing ingredients rather than finished products, but according to BUAV , manufacturers believe these tests overestimate the toxic effects of substances; they therefore repeat the tests using their finished products to obtain a less toxic label. The substances are applied to the skin or dripped into the eyes; injected intravenously , intramuscularly , or subcutaneously ; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or simply in the animal's food.
Doses may be given once, repeated regularly for many months, or for the lifespan of the animal. There are several different types of acute toxicity tests. This test was removed from OECD international guidelines in , replaced by methods such as the fixed dose procedure , which use fewer animals and cause less suffering. Irritancy can be measured using the Draize test , where a test substance is applied to an animal's eyes or skin, usually an albino rabbit.
For Draize eye testing, the test involves observing the effects of the substance at intervals and grading any damage or irritation, but the test should be halted and the animal killed if it shows "continuing signs of severe pain or distress". The most stringent tests are reserved for drugs and foodstuffs. For these, a number of tests are performed, lasting less than a month acute , one to three months subchronic , and more than three months chronic to test general toxicity damage to organs , eye and skin irritancy, mutagenicity , carcinogenicity , teratogenicity , and reproductive problems.
The cost of the full complement of tests is several million dollars per substance and it may take three or four years to complete. These toxicity tests provide, in the words of a United States National Academy of Sciences report, "critical information for assessing hazard and risk potential". Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe.
Cosmetics testing on animals is particularly controversial. Such tests, which are still conducted in the U. Cosmetics testing on animals is banned in India, the European Union, Israel and Norway   while legislation in the U. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal , has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg , asking that the ban be quashed.
Before the early 20th century, laws regulating drugs were lax. Currently, all new pharmaceuticals undergo rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. Tests on pharmaceutical products involve:. It is estimated that 20 million animals are used annually for educational purposes in the United States including, classroom observational exercises, dissections and live-animal surgeries.
States and school districts mandating students be offered the choice to not dissect. The Sonoran Arthropod Institute hosts an annual Invertebrates in Education and Conservation Conference to discuss the use of invertebrates in education.
In November , the U. The operator is required to amputate a cockroach's antennae , use sandpaper to wear down the shell, insert a wire into the thorax , and then glue the electrodes and circuit board onto the insect's back. A mobile phone app can then be used to control it via Bluetooth. The makers of the "Roboroach" have been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and state that the device is intended to encourage children to become interested in neuroscience.
Animals are used by the military to develop weapons, vaccines, battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing. In the US military, goats are commonly used to train combat medics. Goats have become the main animal species used for this purpose after the Pentagon phased out using dogs for medical training in the s. Coast Guard announced that it would reduce the number of animals it uses in its training exercises by half after PETA released video showing Guard members cutting off the limbs of unconscious goats with tree trimmers and inflicting other injuries with a shotgun, pistol, ax and a scalpel.
The moral and ethical questions raised by performing experiments on animals are subject to debate, and viewpoints have shifted significantly over the 20th century. Still, a wide range of viewpoints exist. The view that animals have moral rights animal rights is a philosophical position proposed by Tom Regan , among others, who argues that animals are beings with beliefs and desires, and as such are the "subjects of a life" with moral value and therefore moral rights.
Likewise, a "moral dilemma" view suggests that avoiding potential benefit to humans is unacceptable on similar grounds, and holds the issue to be a dilemma in balancing such harm to humans to the harm done to animals in research. Another prominent position is that of philosopher Peter Singer , who argues that there are no grounds to include a being's species in considerations of whether their suffering is important in utilitarian moral considerations.
Governments such as the Netherlands and New Zealand have responded to the public's concerns by outlawing invasive experiments on certain classes of non-human primates, particularly the great apes. NIH announced in that it would dramatically reduce and eventually phase out experiments on chimpanzees. The British government has required that the cost to animals in an experiment be weighed against the gain in knowledge.
Various specific cases of animal testing have drawn attention, including both instances of beneficial scientific research, and instances of alleged ethical violations by those performing the tests. The fundamental properties of muscle physiology were determined with work done using frog muscles including the force generating mechanism of all muscle,  the length-tension relationship,  and the force-velocity curve  , and frogs are still the preferred model organism due to the long survival of muscles in vitro and the possibility of isolating intact single-fiber preparations not possible in other organisms.
Concerns have been raised over the mistreatment of primates undergoing testing. In the case of Britches , a macaque monkey at the University of California, Riverside , gained public attention. He had his eyelids sewn shut and a sonar sensor on his head as part of an experiment to test sensory substitution devices for blind people. The laboratory was raided by Animal Liberation Front in , removing Britches and other animals. Following release of the footage, the U.
Threats of violence to animal researchers are not uncommon. In , a primate researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA shut down the experiments in his lab after threats from animal rights activists. The researcher had received a grant to use 30 macaque monkeys for vision experiments; each monkey was anesthetized for a single physiological experiment lasting up to hours, and then euthanized. Demonstrations were held in front of his home.
A Molotov cocktail was placed on the porch of what was believed to be the home of another UCLA primate researcher; instead, it was accidentally left on the porch of an elderly woman unrelated to the university. The Animal Liberation Front claimed responsibility for the attack. These attacks—as well as similar incidents that caused the Southern Poverty Law Center to declare in that the animal rights movement had "clearly taken a turn toward the more extreme"—prompted the US government to pass the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act and the UK government to add the offense of "Intimidation of persons connected with animal research organisation" to the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act Such legislation and the arrest and imprisonment of activists may have decreased the incidence of attacks.
Most scientists and governments state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and that animal tests should only be performed where necessary. The "Three Rs"   are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in most countries. Whilst replacement of animals, i. The scientists and engineers at Harvard's Wyss Institute have created "organs-on-a-chip", including the "lung-on-a-chip" and "gut-on-a-chip".
These tiny devices contain human cells in a 3-dimensional system that mimics human organs. The chips can be used instead of animals in in vitro disease research, drug testing, and toxicity testing. Another non-animal research method is in silico or computer simulation and mathematical modeling which seeks to investigate and ultimately predict toxicity and drug affects in humans without using animals.
This is done by investigating test compounds on a molecular level using recent advances in technological capabilities with the ultimate goal of creating treatments unique to each patient. Microdosing is another alternative to the use of animals in experimentation.
Microdosing is a process whereby volunteers are administered a small dose of a test compound allowing researchers to investigate its pharmacological affects without harming the volunteers. Microdosing can replace the use of animals in pre-clinical drug screening and can reduce the number of animals used in safety and toxicity testing.
Additional alternative methods include positron emission tomography PET , which allows scanning of the human brain in vivo ,  and comparative epidemiological studies of disease risk factors among human populations. Simulators and computer programs have also replaced the use of animals in dissection , teaching and training exercises.
These bodies are mainly driven by responding to regulatory requirements, such as supporting the cosmetics testing ban in the EU by validating alternative methods.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Animal studies disambiguation. History of animal testing. Animal testing on invertebrates. Animal testing on frogs , Animal testing on rabbits , Animal testing on rodents , Draize test , and Median lethal dose. Laika and Soviet space dogs. Animal testing on non-human primates. Laboratory animal sources and International primate trade. Animal cognition , Pain in animals , Pain in fish , Pain in amphibians , Pain in invertebrates , and Pain in cephalopods.
Euthanasia and Animal euthanasia. Testing cosmetics on animals. Animal welfare , Animal rights , and History of animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing. Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original PDF on 25 June British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection.