The nutrient profiling model

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Although inorganic arsenic is a toxin, small amounts speed the growth of the birds, make their breast meat pinker, and kill certain bacteria. Sometimes it helps to look at an issue from the other side of the fence. Request an accessible format. A comparison between visual scoring of yolk color and colorimetric assay of yolk carotenoids. Almost half the meat and poultry sold in the US is likely to be contaminated by highly dangerous bacteria, according to research published this month April in the scientific journal, Clinical Infectious Diseases. Many people turn to internet websites for their health information, and few sites are as highly regarded as the Mayo Clinic Health Oasis site which professes to offer "Reliable information for a healthier life.

Once again, the women with the most CLA had the lowest risk of cancer. The most natural and effective way to increase your intake of CLA is to eat the meat and dairy products of grassfed animals.

A case-control study in France. Now there's another good reason to purchase eggs from pastured poultry farmers: This information comes from a British study published in At the time, British consumers were concerned about the trend toward factory farming. Specifically, they thought factory eggs might not be as nutritious as eggs from free-ranging birds.

An elaborate study confirmed their suspicions. The eggs from free-range hens contained significantly more folic acid and vitamin B12, as you can see by the graph below.

The researchers also looked for differences in the fatty acid content of the eggs but did not find any. Now we know why. In the s, little was known about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, so the researchers didn't even bother to look for them in the eggs.

Tolan et al , "Studies on the Composition of Food, The chemical composition of eggs produced under battery, deep litter and free-range conditions. Nutrition , The goal of the commercial dairy industry is to coax the maximum amount of milk out of each cow through a high-tech combination of selective breeding, confinement housing, synthetic hormones, and a high-energy grain diet.

It has succeeded admirably. Today's super cows produce as much as 17, pounds of milk per cycle—20 times more milk than a cow needs to sustain a healthy calf. Unfortunately for consumers, the cow transfers a set amount of vitamins to her milk, and the greater her milk volume, the more dilute the vitamin content of the milk, especially vitamins E and beta-carotene.

According to the journal article cited below, "It follows that continuing breeding and management systems that focus solely on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants Dairy cows raised on pasture and free of hormone implants produce less milk than commercial cows, but the milk is therefore richer in vitamin content.

This is one of those times when less is more. Until recently, all of the experiments demonstrating the cancer-fighting properties of CLA conjugated linoleic acid have used synthetic CLA. To see whether the CLA that occurs naturally in cow's milk has similar cancer-fighting properties, researchers recently compared the two. They fed one group of rats butter that was high in CLA and fed another group of rats an equivalent amount of synthetic CLA.

As one would expect, the natural CLA proved to be just as effective in blocking tumor growth as the man-made variety. In both cases, cancer yield was reduced by about 50 percent. However, the high CLA butter had an added benefit: Researchers believe that the rats were converting another "good" fat found in the butter, trans-vaccenic acid or TVA, into CLA, giving them a second helping of this cancer-fighting fat.

Click here for more information about TVA. Japanese importers place a premium on beef with ultra-white fat, which is difficult for New Zealand ranchers to achieve because they fatten their cattle on pasture. Grass is rich in the antioxidant vitamin beta-carotene, which lends a healthy, creamy color to meat fat. In a recent experiment, New Zealand researchers experimented with taking cattle off pasture and fattening them American-style on grain.

Because grain is more expensive in New Zealand than it is in the States, grain-feeding was limited to less than 2 months. The fat color did not change appreciably, even though serum levels of beta-carotene dropped 97 percent. What's more, 1 the animals weighed less than animals that were allowed to stay on pasture, 2 their meat was tougher, and 3 the meat lost more moisture when cooked.

The scientists concluded that animals need to be fed grain for a longer period of time to use up all the beta-carotene stored in the fat. Also, longer grain-feeding is required to overcome the initial weight loss of cattle that are switched from pasture to a feedlot diet.

The increased toughness was unexpected and without explanation. Standard poultry feed is supplemented with small amounts of vitamin E. But as you can see by the graph below, it doesn't come close to the bounty of vitamin E that chickens glean from fresh pasture. This vitamin E gets passed on to the consumer. An egg from a pastured hen has 30 percent more vitamin E than the kind you buy in the supermarket.

Lopez-Bote et al , "Effect of free-range feeding on omega-3 fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol content and oxidative stability of eggs. When cattle are free to forage on their natural diet of grass, their meat is almost as lean as wild game. The graph below shows that grassfed beef has an overall fat content similar to antelope, deer, and elk.

This second graph shows that grain-fed beef has a much higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids than wild game or grass-fed beef. A high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids has been linked with an increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, allergies, depression, obesity, and auto-immune disorders. A ratio of four or lower is considered ideal. The ratio in grain-fed beef is more than 14 to 1. In grassfed beef, it is approximately two to one. Data for both graphs comes from G.

Some commercial feedlots feed stale candy to cattle in an effort to reduce costs. According to a recent review, milk chocolate and candy "are often economical sources of nutrients, particularly fat. They are sometimes fed in their wrappers. Candies, such as cull gummy bears, lemon drops, or gum drops are high in sugar content. As long as beef producers are not accountable for the ultimate nutritional value of the meat, they will continue to formulate feedlot diets on a least cost basis and American consumers will continue to eat meat that is artificially high in fat and low in vitamin E, beta carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, and CLA.

Beef and buffalo jerky fit well into a busy lifestyle. Jerky needs no refrigeration and can be easily tucked into a pocket, purse, or lunch bag to provide a satisfying, high-protein snack. When the jerky is made from the meat of grassfed animals, you're also getting superior nutritional value and no questionable additives. If you're purchasing grassfed meat in quantity, consider making your own jerky.

Be aware, however, that most traditional recipes do not specify the high temperatures necessary to eliminate the risk of E. To solve the problem, food scientists from Colorado State University Cooperative Extension developed three different recipes for making safe jerky at home.

No time to make jerky? Order it ready made from one of five different suppliers in the Eat Wild Pastured Products Directory Click on the directory and then use your browser to search in the page for the word "jerky.

In yet another short-sighted experiment, researchers at Washington State University are feeding recycled restaurant grease to feedlot cattle in an attempt to raise the CLA levels of their meat. Although grease will indeed enhance CLA levels, it cannot compete with grass when the total nutritional value of the meat is taken into consideration.

Meat from cattle raised on grass and legumes is not only five times higher in CLA than meat from feedlot cattle, it is also higher in vitamin E, beta carotene, and omega-3 fatty acids.

Also, restaurant grease is high in a type of fat called "linoleic acid" or LA that is known to stimulate tumor growth. Although grease-fed cattle will have more of the cancer-fighting CLA, they will also have higher levels of the cancer-promoting LA, perhaps canceling out the anticipated benefits.

As long as researchers focus on artificial ways to raise CLA levels in animals, we will continue to have beef that is nutritionally inferior in other areas.

We will also be plagued with all the problems linked with the feedlot industry including nutrient leaching, odor, diseased animals, and the indiscriminate use of growth promoting hormones and antibiotics.

Martin Marchello at the Carrington Research Extension Center has found that grassfed bison have as much as four times more selenium an essential trace mineral than grainfed bison. Eating just three ounces of grassfed bison, for example, can give you over mcg. Most of the selenium research has focused on its potential to reduce the risk of cancer, but a study found that selenium also promotes a sunnier disposition!

In this study, volunteers were given either micrograms of selenium or a sugar pill. Those who were given the selenium noticed an improved mood in just two weeks. Eating a small portion of grassfed bison on a daily basis should produce the same results. Conjugated linoleic acid or CLA has demonstrated a multitude of benefits in animal studies, including fat reduction, increase in lean muscle mass, reduced risk of diabetes, reversal of arteriosclerosis, and a marked reduction in tumor growth.

Many people do not realize, however, that there are 16 different types of CLA, each with a slightly different molecular shape. New research reveals that each type of CLA has a different set of benefits. The type of CLA most abundant in meat and dairy products referred to by chemists as "cis-9, trans, CLA" appears to be the champion cancer fighter. Compared with another common type of CLA trans 10, cis 12, CLA it was a third more effective in blocking the growth of human cancer cells.

But the type of CLA found in meat and dairy products does not appear to reduce fat or increase lean muscle mass in humans. That property is linked with trans 10, cis 12, CLA. It will be some time before researchers match each type of CLA with its particular benefits. Information gleaned from abstracts presented at the 91st American Oil Chemists Society April , annual meeting. Special supplement to Inform , vol 11, no 5, French cheeses are among the most carefully crafted and coveted in the world.

Now there's another reason to seek them out: A survey found that CLA levels in French cheese range from 5. American cheese from conventional dairies has half this amount, with levels ranging from 2. Typically, American dairies raise their cows in confinement and feed them a grain-based diet. French dairies are more likely to raise their cows on pasture, resulting in naturally high levels of CLA.

Evidence is mounting that dairy products from grassfed cows supply yet another "good" fat to our diettrans-vaccenic acid or TVA. Technically, TVA is classified as a "trans-fatty acid," a type of fat nutritionists tell us to avoid. But TVA appears to behave differently from the man-made fat that comes from the hydrogenization of vegetable oil. Unlike the trans-fatty acids found in fast foods and margarine, TVA is not linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may help inhibit tumor growth and obesity.

Schingoethe and colleagues are experimenting with increasing TVA in dairy cows by feeding them fish meal and soybeans. But raising cows on fresh pasture and withholding all grain may prove just as effective. Milk from grassfed Irish cows is 2—3 times higher in conjugated linoleic acid CLA than milk from grainfed American cows. Experiments are underway in Ireland to increase this CLA advantage. Recent experiments show that feeding oilseeds to grassfed dairy cows boosts their CLA production even more.

The Irish get added health benefits from their grassfed beef as well, according to a soon-to-be-published study. Compared with animals fed supplemental grain, meat from cattle raised on pasture alone was lower in saturated fat, but higher in the "good fats," including monounsaturated fats, omega-3 fats, and CLA. Commented the researchers, "These data indicate that many Irish beef producers, due to their grass-based production systems, have a natural advantage in producing beef that is more beneficial to human health than beef produced from concentrate-based systems.

Fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, of intra-muscular fat from steers offered grazed grass, grass silage or concentrate-based diets. Journal of Animal Science. A study in the March 28th, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports that as many as one out of every three cattle may play host to the deadliest strain of E.

H This is ten times higher than earlier estimates. As explained in more detail in Why Grassfed Is Best! First, it keeps the overall bacteria count low. Second, it prevents the bacteria from becoming acid resistant. Acid-resistant bacteria are far more likely to survive the acidity of our normal digestive juices and cause disease. The first graph below illustrates the absolute numbers of E. The second graph shows how many of the bacteria are likely to withstand our gastric juices.

Grassfed animals have so few acid-resistant bacteria that the number fails to register on the scale of the graph. WE never found an animal that didn't agree with the trend. You should still take the normal precautions when handling and cooking grassfed meat, however. As few as ten E. Pastured poultry producers take heart: Consumers are finally getting the message that some eggs are better than others. Andrews predicts that "this segment will see accelerated growth in and may hit 50MM units.

There are two types of fats that are essential for your health—omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. The typical western diet is overloaded with omega-6 fatty acids and deficient in omega-3s, upsetting a critical balance.

Look at the graph below and you will see that fresh pasture has two times more omega-3 than omega-6 fatty acids. Grain and soy, on the other hand, have far more omega-6s than omega-3s. Therefore, when you switch to grassfed products, you are helping to correct the gross imbalance in the western diet.

Eating a balanced ratio of essential fatty acids is linked with a lower risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and mental disorders. The way that cheese is made influences its CLA conjugated linoleic acid content. In general, the longer cheese is aged, the lower the CLA. Thus, hard cheeses such as Parmesan and Romano tend to have less CLA than softer cheeses such as cream cheese, cottage cheese, feta, farmer's cheese, ricotta, and Brie. In addition, cheese that is aged through "bacterial surface ripening" Brick and Muenster has more CLA than cheese that does not go through this process.

Finally, a serving of high-fat cheese will have more CLA than a similar serving of low-fat cheese. The CLA is measured in terms of grams of CLA per gram of total fat; the more total grams of fat in a serving of cheese, the more CLA it will have Reduced fat swiss is an anomaly, for unknown reasons..

The table below shows CLA levels in cheese purchased at a grocery store in In all likelihood, the milk came from confinement dairy operations.

If the milk had come from grassfed animals, the CLA content would have been five times higher. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with one out of every two adults burdened by excess weight.

To help trim the fat, Procter and Gamble has given us Olestra, "the no-fat cooking oil with the full-fat flavor. First, it cuts down on your body's absorption of beta-carotene and vitamin E. Second, it can cause "bloating, cramping, nausea, and loose stools or diarrhea. Nature has given us a healthier alternative to weight control—eat meat from animals raised on fresh pasture.

Meat from grassfed animals has about half the fat as meat from grainfed animals and significantly fewer calories. It also gives you a bonus supply of vitamins E, A, D, and beta-carotene.

If people haven't tasted grassfed meat, they wonder how it's going to taste. Kerry Engel, a rural development specialist, surveyed executive chefs from six, high-end hotels, restaurants and catering businesses.

He reports that "a few meat products that the chefs specifically inquired about include free-range poultry and grassfed meats and ducks. They're especially interested in unusual, exciting and new specialty products. Help spread the word. Ask for grassfed range-fed meat the next time you're dining out! The more that nutritionists learn about naturally occurring antioxidants, the more they like lutein.

Lutein is closely related to beta-carotene, but is absorbed more readily. Lutein reduces the risk of macular degeneration a leading cause of blindness and may also help prevent breast and colon cancer. Meat from sheep raised on pasture has twice as much lutein as meat from grain-fed sheep—yet another nutritional advantage of raising animals naturally.

In , when the Food and Drug Agency approved the use of synthetic hormones to increase milk production in dairy cows, the FDA assured a worried public that recombinant bST would not diminish the nutritional value of the milk. In an interview, Commissioner David A. In fact, it's not possible using current scientific techniques to tell them apart. Seven years later, there is new evidence that synthetic hormones reduce levels of conjugated linoleic acid or CLA in beef, depriving consumers of a naturally occurring and potentially lifesaving substance.

It is not known at this time whether bST has a similar effect on milk products. Nonetheless, this is yet another example of researchers altering a natural product before fully understanding its many benefits. Nothing beats fresh pasture for nutritional value. Once the grass is cut and dried, there is a dramatic decline in vital nutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, and the carotenes beta-carotene and related antioxidant vitamins.

The graph below shows the difference in carotene content between fresh Bermuda grass and the same grass that has been field dried. In the winter months or other times of year when the grass is dormant, even grassfarmers must rely on stored forages such as hay. But, typically, the animals are harvested in the early fall when the animals are fresh from green pasture. This insures that their meat will have its full allotment of health-enhancing vitamins.

Feedlot animals never eat living grass. Eggs are gaining new respect from nutritionists, partly for their abundance of two carotenes lutein and zeaxanthin.

These antioxidant vitamins are essential for the protection of the macula, an area of the retina that provides our best central vision. Eggs are the richest known source. Lutein and zeaxanthin protect the macula from the destructive effects of light. The deeper the yellow-orange color of yolks, the more lutein and zeaxanthin they contain and the more eye-protection they offer.

There is also new evidence linking lutein and zeaxanthin with a lower risk of colon cancer. According to a recent study, "Of all the carotenoids investigated, only lutein and zeaxanthin showed a protective effect against colon cancer, with an enhanced effect in younger people.

Am J Clin Nutr 71, Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control recently determined the vitamin E status of 16, American men and women. Twenty-percent per cent of white Americans, 41 per cent of African Americans, and 28 per cent of Mexican Americans were deficient in vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiencies have been linked with diabetes, immune disorders, AIDS, muscle damage in exercise, Parkinson's disease, eye diseases, and lung and liver diseases.

As you can see by several of the posts below, switching to the products of animals raised on grass which is far richer in vitamin E than grain would help prevent this widespread deficiency. Many people turn to internet websites for their health information, and few sites are as highly regarded as the Mayo Clinic Health Oasis site which professes to offer "Reliable information for a healthier life. The experts should be more thorough in their research.

As you will see by the posts below and by reading Why Grassfed Is Best! Meanwhile, they are lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. In addition, there is a direct relationship between feed, yolk color, and the nutrient content of the egg.

The more orange the yolk, the higher the level of health-enhancing carotenoids. A comparison between visual scoring of yolk color and colorimetric assay of yolk carotenoids. When animals are removed from their natural habitat, they are at the mercy of humans for everything they eat. Regrettably, very little research is aimed at recreating what the animals would normally glean in the wild.

Instead, the goal is to create the lowest cost diet that will maintain the highest possible production levels. This "least cost production" mentality will prevail as long as consumers remain ignorant of the many compromises involved. The supplement of synthetic antioxidant is unnecessary. This extra helping of vitamin E may not increase egg production, but it does yield healthier eggs for the consumer.

Savvy consumers are becoming more aware of these invisible differences. Many people assume that the degree of marbling in meat is a major determinant of tenderness.

Marbling accounts for only 10 percent of the variability in tenderness. There are numerous other factors involved, including the amount of stress animals are subjected to prior to slaughter. Researchers in New Zealand and Australia report that beef is consistently on the tender end of the scale when pre-slaughter stress is minimized, regardless of breed.

Read "The Meat Tenderness Debate. In a recent study, one group of chickens was confined indoors the conventional system and another was allowed to free-range. Both groups were fed the same commercial mixed diet.

The chickens that were able to add grass to the menu produced eggs that that were higher in omega-3s and alpha-tocopherol vitamin E. Both omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E have been linked with lower rates of cancer and cardiovascular disease in humans.

The type of grasses and legumes growing in a pasture can influence the amount of CLA in cow's milk. When dairy cows grazed pasture that contained 20 percent red clover, they produced 50 percent more cancer-fighting, fat-busting CLA than cows that grazed on grasses alone. Search for the study titled, "Paddocks containing red clover compared to all grass paddocks support high CLA levels in milk. Management Intensive Grazing or "MIG" is the practice of shifting livestock from paddock to paddock on a frequent basis to enhance the yield and quality of the pasture.

Milk from cows raised under this system was found to be lower in bacterial count than milk from cows raised in standard confinement dairies.

Canadian researchers compared the nutrient value of randomly selected grass clippings with the grass the cattle themselves selected. Invariably, the cattle selected grass that was higher in protein and mineral content. Judging by their results, the researchers cautioned that a standard analysis of pasture grasses is likely to underestimate the actual amount of nutrients that cattle glean from the pasture.

Canadian Journal of Animal Science 79 3 Pigs raised on pasture have percent more vitamin E and 74 percent more selenium a vital antioxidant in their milk than pigs raised in confinement, according to Don C.

This bounty of nutrients promotes healthier litters, shorter farrowing times, and good milk let down. The pigs' meat is enriched with vitamins as well.

Fortifying the pigs' diet with synthetic vitamins, the standard practice in confinement operations, does not achieve the same results because the artificial vitamins are more poorly absorbed. Effect of pasture, confinement, and diet fortification with vitamin E and selenium on reproducing gilts and their progeny. Eggs from pastured hens have 2 to 20 times more omega-3s. The amount varies depending on the quality of the pasture and the omega-3 content of the supplemental feed.

To achieve marbled beef, feedlot cattle are fed a high-grain diet. This results in a significant amount of external fat that has to be trimmed away. Consumers trim away yet more fat when they bring the meat home. Turkeys raised on pasture have a diet that resembles their original diet. Zoologists studying wild turkeys found that "the youngsters instinctively peck at moving things - which are usually protein-rich bugs or larvae.

He reports that horses have the lowest CLA content and sheep the highest. Human milk is in the middle. Cutting back on egg consumption has been widely recommended as a way to lower blood cholesterol levels and prevent coronary heart disease. Is this valid advice? Recently, researchers took a close look at the egg-eating habits and heart health of , men and women.

The scientists reported that "we found no evidence of an overall significant association between egg consumption and risk of CHD [coronary heart disease] in either men or women. One wonders what the scientists would find if they looked at the heart health of those lucky people who eat eggs from pastured hens? Sometimes it helps to look at an issue from the other side of the fence. Here's a paragraph excerpted from an on-line publication of the beef industry about the economic benefits of implanted synthetic hormones.

For round-numbers perspective, Kuhl explains implanting calves adds lbs. A single implant in the stocker pasture is worth lbs. Grassfarmers have a refreshingly different approach to encouraging growth in their livestock. The NP model was subject to rigorous scientific scrutiny, extensive consultation and review. The NP model has been used by Ofcom since April To help us improve GOV.

It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. Skip to main content. Home Health and social care Health improvement. Policy paper The nutrient profiling model. The nutrient profiling model. Published 14 January Department of Health and Social Care. Request an accessible format. Is this page useful?