Nutrition Therapy in the Adult Hospitalized Patient

B. Nutritional assessment


Blockchain technology is already being tested by traders across the world and has been implemented in the Australian stock exchange. Relate demographic research and life style to trends. Demonstrate a variety of cooking methods. Increased impact on oral health-related quality of life OHRQoL was related to the severity of cavitated dentine lesions, but fluorosis resulting from combined fluoride exposure from early ages was not of concern for the adolescents. Maintain on a hard copy file. Rationale Pooling of secretions or presence of atelectasis may lead to pneumonia, requiring more aggressive therapeutic measures.

AIDING AND ABETTING


Lucigen recognized the opportunity to export early in its history, appointing its first group of distributors in The company has recognized the potential to expand its presence to more complex markets like India and China. Today, Lucigen is able to bring Wisconsin-made products to scientists around the globe, directly or through its network of 50 distributors.

Within the last year, the company has added 10 distributors to its global network, helping push its exports to an all-time high. In the future, Lucigen plans to grow its presence in emerging markets such as Latin America and the Middle East.

May - All of us here at Lucigen are excited to recognize four top-performing employees from this last quarter. Stop by our booth to chat live with us about solutions for NGS library prep, whole genome amplification from limiting samples, difficult cloning and high efficiency library preparation. May 10, - E. Obtaining sufficient recombinant protein is often one early step in a long research project, so progressing quickly from cloned or synthesized cDNA to soluble, active protein is essential.

Whether your lab is expressing a single target or multiple targets in a high-throughput screen, common challenges such as toxicity, low solubility or expression levels, and inefficient fusion tag cleavage can slow or stop progress. In this webinar we will discuss scalable solutions to speed and simplify protein expression at every step, including cloning, expression, and testing of protein yield and solubility.

We will discuss novel fusion tags that enhance solubility, and tips and tricks for efficient fusion tag cleavage. We will also introduce methods to express difficult targets, and present case studies illustrating toxic or insoluble protein production from cloning through functional characterization.

May , - Stop by booth and learn how to increase your yield of soluble recombinant protein from E. April 4, - Lucigen Corporation announces it has signed a global agreement with Illumina, Inc. Products covered by this new agreement are in addition to the select Epicentre products that were licensed and transferred to Lucigen for manufacture and distribution in December Effective immediately, Lucigen Corporation will distribute the complete Epicentre product portfolio.

Epicentre Technologies, known for its genomics and transcriptomics products for gene expression, cloning, and in vitro transcription, was acquired by Illumina in Lucigen manufactures and supplies products that advance research in the fields of synthetic biology, next generation sequencing, genetic amplification, and protein expression. Providing a single-vendor solution gives life science professionals easy and seamless access to these products. February - At a trade show last year, a new customer made sure to stop by the Lucigen booth to personally thank our team for the support we had provided on a large OEM project in synthetic biology.

Additionally, the Lucigen team made sure to deliver high-quality product on time, time after time, resulting in a strong relationship that continues today. These proteins control myriad processes in the human body, and are the targets of many drugs in the marketplace. This grant supports the development of tools to increase the yield of functional GPCRs from mammalian cell culture, and to speed the processes to determine the 3-dimensional structures of these proteins.

These tools may impact human health by enabling development of improved drugs to better target specific cellular signaling pathways. January , - Representatives of Lucigen used the meeting to introduce and renew contacts with a number of partners and potential collaborators. One-on-one meetings were held with a number of companies, mostly those interested in Lucigen's NGS products and technologies.

Jay Schiestle will join a team-taught graduate course at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. As a part-time adjunct professor, Mr.

Ed Elder, with his own expertise in biomanufacturing and operations. In the program, Mr. Schiestle will serve on a team with Dr. As an employer of UW graduates, Lucigen is proud to support the university in developing students for future careers in the biotechnology marketplace—locally and beyond. For example, we can discuss how to construct Illumina-compatible DNA fragment libraries that significantly improve the diversity of your libraries and in turn the quality of your NGS data.

We can also chat about solutions for successfully amplifying entire genomes from single cells or 1 fg of gDNA with minimal bias. So stop by and see how we can help you. At this event, the Lucigen team talked with interested MMSD parents and 8th graders about the Health Care Career Pathway program and potential careers in the life-science industry.

Memorial plans to include about students in its Pathway program for the school year. Lucigen is excited to support both programs in helping MMSD students identify and achieve their biotech vocational goals. November 29, - With this agreement, effective January 1, , select Epicentre products will be manufactured and sold exclusively by Lucigen Corporation directly to customers and through its distribution network worldwide.

Epicentre Technologies, known for its genomics and transcriptomics products for gene expression, cloning, and in vitro transcription, was acquired by Illumina in , and continues to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of Illumina in Madison, Wisconsin. November 16, - Lucigen was recently honored at the Wisconsin Early Stage Symposium, together with other local companies that have been awarded a Small Business Innovation Research grant in the last year.

The aims of this grant are to enable improved expression of membrane proteins, which are key subjects of ongoing biomedical research and targets of many pharmaceuticals.

We are honored to receive this recognition, and excited for the research opportunity it provides Lucigen to improve outcomes in the field of producing challenging proteins for biomedical research.

For example, we can discuss solutions for successfully amplifying entire genomes from single cells or 1 fg of gDNA with minimal bias or constructing Illumina-compatible DNA fragment libraries that significantly improve the diversity of your libraries and in turn the quality of your NGS data.

Julie Kramer, Director of Marketing and Mr. Taking place at the Discovery Building in downtown Madison, the annual event celebrated its sixth outing. As a company and community partner, we were glad to be able to celebrate our love for science with community members and to teach students about the importance of various scientific disciplines.

For instance, successfully amplifying gDNA from single to a few cells with minimal bias or constructing Illumina-compatible DNA fragment libraries that improve the quality of your NGS data. October , - Visit us at Booth 5 with Douglas Instruments! October , - Be sure to stop by the Lucigen table to hear the latest on how our Illumina-compatible NGS library prep kits can help you decrease costs, improve data quality and enable library construction with DNA samples you'd normally reject.

October , - Stop by the Lucigen booth to learn about our cloning system for large operons and biosynthetic pathways, and how our high-efficiency competent cells improve your cloning projects — even high-throughput cloning! A new mammalian expression vector shows unprecedented ability to express large operons, tandemly-repeated protein subunits, and multi-protein complexes in bacterial and mammalian cells.

Expression is based on the unique linear pJAZZ vector, which enables stable cloning of difficult or repetitive sequences that cannot be maintained in circular plasmids. The pJAZZ vector can accommodate inserts of up to 40 kb, allowing expression of multiple genes and multi-protein complexes. We have also evaluated pJAZZ as a vector to support isoprene production.

Expression of a 9. A blue light-inducible system has been used to permit on-demand gene expression in mammalian cells, with spatial and temporal resolution that cannot be achieved with classical small molecule-based induction systems. October , - Visit us at Booth 12 to learn how to get more data from your NGS fragment libraries and how to get whole genome amplification without using random primers.

Having served as co-founder and leader at a number of biotechnology companies—Promega Corporation, PanVera Corporation, Mirus Corporation, and Lucigen among them—Ralph continues to foster innovation and advocate for biotechnology in our local community and beyond.

April , - Stop by Booth to learn about our superior transformation efficiency competent cells for phage display and innovative screening kits for expressing soluble protein.

Visit us to discuss how Lucigen products can improve your results and workflow. Visit us to discuss how the kit can improve your DNA sequencing results and workflow.

Also learn about generating bigger data from your next gen sequencing DNA fragment libraries. LucigenDx will describe a new platform designed to bring molecular diagnostics to the point-of-care. The platform consists of a test cartridge and a compact instrument designed for CLIA-waiver. Sample extraction, amplification and detection are performed by the isothermal amplification platform. Certifications are earned through successful completion of audits by authorized, third-party registrars.

We recently completed our second annual audit this fall, and continuing our track record of strong performance, with no serious problems or issues raised by the registrar, BSI, Inc. The certifications are granted for three years, and companies are monitored with annual surveillance audits looking at how well their systems perform and how they conform to the ISO standard. Lucigen will re-certify to the standard in the fall of She touched on the value of a the career in biotech program, and the intersections of a career in quality assurance with an MATC biotech education, and the benefits of working for a growing company like Lucigen.

They may lead you down unexpected and rewarding paths. LucigenDx will describe a new platform designed to bring molecular diagnostics to point-of-care. Sample prep, amplification and detection are performed by the isothermal amplification platform with no mixing or measuring. A clinical trial is planned for Also see our poster: Illumina CSPro is the collaborative service provider partnership dedicated to ensuring the delivery of the highest-quality data available for genetic analysis applications.

Illumina CSPro participants undergo a rigorous two-phase certification process that includes minimum data generation, data certification, and an on-site audit of the facility and processes. We offer services from closing and finishing small genomes to improving complex genome assemblies providing larger N50 values.

Our processes help resolve structural variants, haplotypes, sub-genomes and other long range contextual information. This certification will allow our highly trained staff to address the most complex NGS challenges in a helpful, collaborative way. Director of Corporate Marketing. Now that Lucigen is a global CSPro partner, we are excited to work with them to make it easier for scientists to access the power of Illumina's genetic analysis technologies. Ron Godiska, a Ph. Because it is not a conventional circular vector, it can successfully clone particularly difficult genes or clone multiple genes at once.

Its features make it a highly relevant tool for human diseases. Repetitive DNA elements are abundant in most species, creating technical challenges for the accurate de novo assembly of genomes.

New methods that generate user defined mate pair MP libraries up to kb have been developed and validated, with important consequences for assembling and closing repeat rich, complex genomes from fungi, mitochondria, chloroplasts, plants and animals.

Bacterial genomes can be automatically closed and finished with a 20 kb MP library and SPAdes genome assembler software. We also report on improved scaffolding of human, maize, switchgrass, and sorghum mitochondrial genomes with kb mate pair libraries.

The ability to construct and sequence mate pair libraries up to kb simplifies the accurate closing and finishing of complex genomes economically. The distributorship will also address the need to increase availability of easy-to-use products in one of the fastest growing life science research markets.

Through the diversified portfolios of large firms like Sigma-Aldrich, the report specifically notes, market opportunities have already led to high growth. Posters in Session B: March th , - Lucigen's Yogesh Chander, PhD, is a keynote speaker talking on development of point-of-care ebola diagnostics. Long repetitive DNA sequences are abundant in most species, which creates technical challenges for the de novo assembly of even small genomes using short read next generation sequencing NGS methods.

The incorporation of long span mate pair reads dramatically improves the success of de novo assembly and the discovery of structural variants by resolving repeat elements and ordering contigs.

A fosmid based technology for kb MP libraries has been used to close multiple repeat rich, complex genomes. A clone free version has been developed for kb, kb and beyond using bead-based and gel-based methods. A unique barcoding strategy is used to distinguish true mate pairs from false chimeric junctions, dramatically reducing the fraction of misassembled contigs. We report the closing and finishing of four bacterial genomes, and closing several plant genomes, including Miscanthus sinensis and the CMS sorghum mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes.

This online seminar will describe new technology capable of generating mate-pair sequencing reads up to 50 kb in length, enabling de novo genome assembly, closure, and finishing on the Illumina or Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platforms. January rd , -Lucigen has a sponsored talk in Pipeline 4: Engineering Genes, Vectors, Constructs and Clones.

January th , - In addition to having a booth, Lucigen will host a corporate workshop entitled:. In addition, a summary of our progress towards a field-deployable Ebola diagnostic assay was presented. See us at booth To request in-person meetings with Lucigen, please email bizdev lucigen.

Kauten has served as a member of the corporation's Board of Directors for the past ten years and as the Chairman of the board for the past four years. Kauten has been involved in the start-up and management of the life sciences companies Promega Corporation, PanVera acquired by Aurora Biosciences and Mirus Bio acquired by Roche Pharmaceuticals.

David Mead, who founded Lucigen and has served as CEO from the company's inception in , will continue to be actively involved in the role of Chief Scientific Officer. His wealth of leadership experience will be invaluable to the company as we grow and evolve as a premier life science company," states Dr. August 20, — The Ion PGM is a fast and cost-effective platform for next generation sequencing applications. Mate pair libraries are critical for de novo genome assembly, chromosomal rearrangement studies, and finishing genomes.

Traditional fragment libraries produce large quantities of data but result in sequence gaps, misassembled contigs, and collapsed repeats due to short read lengths.

Combining mate pair libraries with fragment libraries has been proven to achieve more accurate genome assemblies. The TrueMate Library Kit will be sold for the PGM platform exclusively through Thermo Fisher, while Lucigen will perform library creation and sequencing services for customers globally. The release of the Ion TrueMate library kit is the first of multiple mate pair kits in development by Lucigen. Future products will include the ability to create longer mate pairs of 20 kb or higher and the application of whole transcriptome sequencing via Full Length RNASeq protocols.

Use of NxSeq with Ion Torrent's system enables mate pair reads without the need for paired end sequencing, permitting economical sequence assembly of BAC clones and small genomes, while NxSeq libraries for the Illumina platform allow for long range paired end sequencing up to 8 kb and accurate assembly of large genomes.

This marks the first collaboration between Lucigen and a genomics service provider Genotypic in India to build awareness of its NxSeq Technology. Ebola, Lassa, and Marburg. Want to learn more about Lucigen's diagnostics solutions? Use of NxSeq with Ion Torrent's system enables mate pair reads without the need for paired end sequencing, permitting economical sequence assembly of BAC clones and small genomes, while NxMate libraries for the Illumina platform allow for long range paired end sequencing and assembly of large genomes.

New Tools for Difficult Expression Problems: New Solubility Partners and Endotoxin Free DNA and Protein , Lucigen will present a suite of new solubility fusion partners within a robust enzyme-free cloning platform, including a novel fluorescent protein that provides an instant visual report of the amount of soluble, active protein. In addition, attendees will learn about novel competent E.

Eliminating Endotoxin at the Source: Lucigen Corporation, Middleton, WI; 2: Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany; 3: Novel Solubility Fusion Partners: January 30, — Lucigen's efforts to develop a new point of care molecular diagnostics platform are chronicled by reporter Jeff Engel of Xconomy.

Current technologies cannot resolve repeats or segmentally duplicated sequences, which results in large missing segments of eukaryotic genomes and failure to close small prokaryotic genomes. These limitations make it very difficult and expensive to assemble large or small genomes de novo. Lucigen will present a fresh approach to solving some of the challenges associated with constructing large insert mate pair libraries.

We will introduce a novel clone free technology for constructing kb mate pair libraries. Sequence data from 8kb and 20kb E. We will also highlight DNASTAR Genomics Suite software, which is uniquely suited for use with data generated by sequencing of Lucigen mate-pair libraries to build scaffolds and close genomes. In , Lucigen embarked on an effort to develop its novel polymerase technology into a molecular diagnostic platform for the detection of human and animal pathogens.

A critical component to this evolution of the company was to enhance its quality and manufacturing capabilities to the level necessary to meet the regulatory requirements for manufacturing of diagnostic devices.

BSI, a leading global certification body, has certified Lucigen as meeting all the requirements of the standard, completing a key step in the process towards submitting a diagnostic test to the FDA. Lucigen plans to enter clinical trials in late , with release of its first molecular diagnostic test in In addition to future molecular diagnostic products, the company intends to supply reagents to other molecular diagnostic test developers that need novel RNA and DNA polymerases and other necessary components.

Obtaining ISO certification places Lucigen among the elite molecular biology reagent manufacturers globally. Many membrane and lipid binding proteins, which are frequently used in drug development are especially challenging to purify free of LPS. By producing proteins using ClearColi cells, researchers can reduce the time, loss of product, and cost associated with endotoxin removal.

More importantly, cell-based assays or animal studies can be performed without concern that LPS endotoxin contamination could be masking promising results, thereby allowing researchers to accelerate the drug discovery process and obtain the most accurate results possible.

In the May 22, issue of Nature, a team of scientists representing a collaborative effort across 28 institutions in 9 countries has published a draft genome assembly of the gigabase genome of the Norway spruce Picea abies , the first available for any gymnosperm. Cheng Cang Wu and his Custom Genomics Services team at Lucigen were instrumental in creating the Spruce pSMART-Fosmid libraries with millions of clones and more than 1, fosmid pools that were enabling to create the genomic scaffold.

This project opens up new genomic avenues for conifer forestry and breeding, and will act as the base for significant additional studies in the future. For a full copy of the peer-reviewed article, please visit: Drug discovery researchers are increasingly turning to biologics as the source for new therapeutics, utilizing the incredible diversity of proteins in order to find new treatments for disease.

To synthesize and manipulate these proteins, researchers normally insert genes coding for the desired protein into mammalian, yeast, or bacterial cells. The common bacteria E. Failure to remove endotoxin from the final product can result in false or misleading results, potentially causing a researcher to improperly reject a promising drug candidate. This new strain has a genetically modified lipopolysaccharide LPS that does not cause an endotoxic response in human cells.

By producing proteins without contaminating endotoxin, researchers can increase productivity by reducing the time, cost, and loss of product associated with endotoxin removal. More important, cell-based assays can be performed without concern that LPS endotoxin contamination could be masking promising results.

Researchers can accelerate drug discovery research and ensure the most accurate results possible. Additional cell lines for plasmid production and phage display are also planned for release, creating a complete system for scientists to study a large variety of biologic compounds for therapeutic applications. These days are hopefully over. RCT and their collaborators have developed technology allowing for the creation of the first viable E.

By eliminating the source of endotoxin, scientists can increase the number of compounds screened and more accurately pinpoint candidates for further testing. They have established themselves as the clear market leader for high efficiency competent cells. In addition, we will be exhibiting the entire week of the show, April 29 — May 3.

April th — Lucigen participated in the BIO International Convention in Chicago, April th as part of a contingent of companies in the WI pavilion, showcasing biotech leaders from throughout the state. Mead himself is renowned as the inventor of TA-cloning, which has been widely commercialized by Invitrogen and is still used by a large percentage of the molecular biology community. Over the course of 15 years, Lucigen has established itself as a high quality provider of innovative, cost effective products and genomic services.

Its products are distributed globally by over 50 distributors around the world. Recently, the company has upgraded its facilities by doubling its laboratory and manufacturing space and expects to achieve ISO certification in Our business continues to grow, even is this era of difficult funding for our customers. Lucigen is exhibiting at PAG Please come see us at booth In addition to our booth, please come see our presentation and posters:. Capitalizing on Sustainable Technology.

Industry leaders will describe how their companies are putting ideas into practice right now. Innovative use of renewable raw materials, sustainable construction, biofuels, resource efficiency and biocatalysis operations are session topics.

July 10, — Lucigen Corporation announced today that its unique pJAZZ cloning technology has been used to create a malaria gene library for use by academic researchers worldwide. The library was first published in Nature Methods in October of It has the potential to significantly advance scientific knowledge of malaria and accelerate the search for therapies.

The DNA sequences of P. Through the use of this technology, the Welcome Trust Sanger Institute has been able to manipulate the genetic material of the parasite and thus create tools for researchers to further study the disease. Even more importantly, it is a starting point for us to generate a free collection of highly efficient genetic modification vectors.

We are aiming to make modification vectors for almost every gene in the P. This meeting will be held on Sept. Lucigen is a pioneer in creating tools for cloning and expressing challenging genes from trace amounts of material, and this technology will be featured at the meeting as a method for new gene discovery from unculturable bacteria and viruses. Please join us in Sevilla in September. This enzyme also efficiently strand displaces and is the basis for a 30 minute isothermal molecular diagnostic platform under development at Lucigen.

May 23, — Lucigen Corporation announced today that it has recently been awarded its largest SBIR Phase II grant to date to fund research and development of a point of care diagnostic test for influenza. Respiratory infections have a significant health and economic impact worldwide, and current test products for the diagnosis of respiratory viral infections such as influenza are inadequate for the timely diagnosis needed for successful implementation of antiviral treatment.

Unfortunately, a test product that can accurately diagnose common respiratory viruses with high confidence in less than 30 minutes directly at point of need has not yet been developed. The combination of novel molecular technologies, simple protocol, and affordable multiplex testing capabilities residing in a single, inexpensive device will enable near point of care diagnostics for a number of serious infectious agents. The key factor enabling this game changing technology is the development of a novel enzyme that converts RNA to DNA and isothermally amplifies it in minutes.

These attributes have allowed the design of a device that does not use any microfluidics, pumps or valves, therefore greatly simplifying construction and significantly reducing the cost of the test. This new technology is ideal for low resource and battlefield settings, and has long term potential as an over the counter device.

Our solution has the potential to significantly advance sensitivity and time to results, thus improving patient treatment and outcomes. April , - Lucigen presents two posters at Experimental Biology: April 21, - Lucigen's Saurabh Sen gives talk: Tips for putting your foot inside the door," as part of a professional development series: Over the course of the past two years, Lucigen has experienced rapid growth in revenues and staff.

In order to accommodate our evolution, Lucigen embarked on the process of expansion in mid, culminating in the relocation of the company to a nearby facility remodeled specifically to meet the current and future needs of Lucigen. We intend to achieve ISO status by late , thereby increasing our opportunity for partnerships with other life science organizations. March 6, - Lucigen Corporation is pleased to announce that it has recently been awarded its largest SBIR Phase II grant to date to fund additional research and development.

More than , Americans die each year due to untreatable microbial infections, most of which are resistant to current antibiotics. A promising source for new antibiotic structures with potentially novel mechanisms of action is found within natural environments, particularly soils, which have the greatest diversity of microbial life.

This result is times more efficient than earlier efforts from other researchers. First Class On August 1, , changes were made to requirement 1a, footnote 3 was renumbered as 4 and a new footnote 5 was added to requirements 6a and 6e. Of the outdoor activities, at least three must include overnight camping. These 10 activities do not include troop or patrol meetings. On at least five of the six campouts, spend the night in a tent that you pitch or other structure that you help erect ,.

Successfully complete the BSA swimmer test. The practice victim should be approximately 30 feet from shore in deep water. Set a goal for continuing to include physical activity as part of your daily life and develop a plan for doing so.

Star Although it was not announced at that time, Requirement 5 was changed in by splitting and revising the list of Venturing and Sea Scouting positions. While a First Class Scout, serve actively in your troop for four months in one or more of the following positions of responsibility or carry out a Scoutmaster assigned leadership project to help the troop: Patrol leader, assistant senior patrol leader, senior patrol leader, troop guide, Order of the Arrow troop representative, den chief, scribe, librarian, historian, quartermaster, bugler, junior assistant Scoutmaster, chaplain aide, instructor, webmaster, or outdoor ethics guide 4 6 Varsity Scout team.

President, vice president, secretary, treasurer, den chief, quartermaster, historian, guide, quartermaster, chaplain aide, or outdoor ethics guide boatswain, boatswain's mate, yeoman, purser, storekeeper, or webmaster, Sea Scout ship. Leadership responsibility in your school, religious organization, club, or elsewhere in your community. Life Although it was not announced at that time, Requirement 5 was changed in by splitting and revising the list of Venturing and Sea Scouting positions.

While a Star Scout, serve actively in your troop for six months in one or more of the following positions of responsibility or carry out a unit leader-assigned leadership project to help the troop: Patrol leader, assistant senior patrol leader, senior patrol leader, troop guide, Order of the Arrow troop representative, den chief, scribe, librarian, historian, quartermaster, bugler, junior assistant Scoutmaster, chaplain aide, instructor, webmaster, or outdoor ethics guide 7 9 Varsity Scout team.

Successfully complete your board of review for the Life rank. Eagle Scout Although it was not announced at that time, Requirement 5 was changed in by splitting and revising the list of Venturing and Sea Scouting positions, and a change was made to the wording of footnote 9. While a Life Scout, serve actively in your troop for six months in one or more of the following positions of responsibility: Patrol leader, assistant senior patrol leader, senior patrol leader, troop guide, Order of the Arrow troop representative, den chief, scribe, librarian, historian, quartermaster, junior assistant Scoutmaster, chaplain aide, instructor, webmaster, or outdoor ethics guide Varsity Scout team.

Successfully complete your board of review for the Eagle Scout rank. After becoming an Eagle Scout and receiving the Eagle Palms you are entitled to, you may earn additional Palms by completing the following requirements: Be active in your troop and patrol the Boy Scouts of America for at least 3 months after becoming an Eagle Scout or after the award of last Palm the last Palm was earned.

Continue to set a satisfactory example of accepting responsibility or demonstrating leadership ability. Earn five additional merit badges beyond those required for Eagle or last Palm.

Successfully complete your board of review for the Eagle Palm. The changes to the requirements are as follows: Select one type of animal - beef cow, dairy cow, horse, sheep, goat, or hog, or a poultry flock - and tell how you would properly manage it. Avian Option Define the following terms: Archaeology The requirements were substantially rewritten.

The new text is as follows: Tell what archaeology is and explain to your counselor how it differs or relates to other fields of study such as anthropology, geology, paleontology, and history. Explain how archaeology is different than artifact collecting or treasure hunting. Describe each of the following steps of the archaeological process: Describe at least two ways in which archaeologists determine the age of sites, structures, or artifacts.

Explain what absolute dating and relative dating are. Learn about a combined total of five archaeological sites located both within and outside the United States. For EACH site you research, point it out on a map and explain how it was discovered.

Describe some of the information about the past that has been found at each site. Explain how the information gained from the study of these sites answers questions that archaeologists are asking and how the information may be important to modern people. Compare the relative ages of the sites you research. Choose ONE of the sites you picked and give a short presentation about your findings to a Cub Scout pack, your Scout troop, your school class, or another group. Learn about the federal laws and international conventions that protect archaeological sites.

Find out if your state, county, or local government has regulations that apply to archaeological or historic sites. Identify a national, international, or local organization that helps to protect archaeological sites.

Explain why it is important to protect archaeological sites. Explain what people should do if they think they have found an artifact. Describe the ways in which you can be a protector of the past.

Do ONE of the following and discuss your findings with your counselor: Visit a museum to observe how artifacts aid in conveying history. Make a list of the trash your family throws out during one week. Discuss with your counselor what archaeologists might learn about you and your family if they found your trash a thousand years from now.

Do either A or B of the following: With your parent's and counselor's permission, assist a qualified archaeologist for at least eight hours with a project being worked on.

Projects may include surveying, site monitoring, site stabilization, excavation, laboratory analysis, use of digital archaeological technology, or public outreach. Describe your involvement in the project, what you learned about archaeology, and the steps of archaeological inquiry. Visiting an archaeological site will require advance planning.

An archaeological site during study can be a dangerous place. While there, you will need to closely follow the archaeologist's directions and comply with all the safety procedures. Be aware of the changing conditions at the site. With your counselor's approval, take part in a simulated archaeological project designed by a qualified archaeologist.

The project must include the use of a simulated archaeological site including artifacts and features for the site. Explain how the environment and time can affect the interpretation of an artifact and the overall archaeological site. Tell how you would share the results of your analysis with other researchers and the public. To find out how to make a simulated archaeological site, talk with a professional archaeologist, trained avocational archaeologist, museum school instructor, junior high or high school science teacher, advisor from a local archaeology society, or other qualified instructor.

Under the supervision of a qualified archaeologist or instructor, do ONE of the following: Help prepare an archaeological exhibit for display in a museum, visitor center, school, or other public area. Use the methods of experimental archaeology to re-create an item or to practice a skill from the past. Write a brief report explaining the experiment and its results. Research a group of people who lived in your area more than years ago.

Find out about their ways of life, including housing, clothing, arts and crafts, tools, trade and markets, rituals and religions, and diets, and their relationships with other groups of people in the area.

Describe what you would expect to find at an archaeological site where these people lived. Explain how these people influenced your current community. Identify three career opportunities in archaeology. Pick one and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor what education and training are required, and explain why this profession might interest you. The change to the requirement is as follows: Astronomy The changes to the requirements are as follows: Sketch the phase and the daily position of the Moon at the same hour and place, for four days in a row nights within a one week period.

Include landmarks on the horizon such as hills, trees, and buildings. Explain the changes you observe. Plan and participate in a three-hour observation session that includes using binoculars or a telescope. List the celestial objects you want to observe, and find each on a star chart or in a guidebook. Prepare an observing a log or notebook. Show your plan, charts, and log or notebook to your counselor before making your observations.

Discuss with your counselor what you hope to observe prior to your observation session. Review your log or notebook with your counselor afterward. Athletics Two notes were added before the first requirement, and requirements 2 and 3a were revised.

Explain Do the following: The Explain the importance of the a physical exam b. The Explain the importance of maintaining good health habits, especially during training - and how the use of tobacco products, alcohol, and other harmful substances can negatively affect your health and performance in athletic activities. The Explain the importance of maintaining a healthy diet. With guidance from your counselor, establish a personal training program suited to the activity you have chosen.

Follow this training program for four three months. Although the time period in requirement 3a was changed to 3 months, the same change was not made to requirement 3d, which reads as follows: At the end of four months, review the chart you created for requirement 3b, and discuss with your counselor what progress you have made during training. Tell how your development has affected you mentally and physically.

Camping Requirements 3 and 8d were revised, and two footnotes for requirement 3 were added. If no GPS receiver unit is available, explain how to use one to get to your camping spot. At least one of those meals must be a trail meal requiring the use of a lightweight stove.

Canoeing Changes were made to requirements 10 and 12c. With a companion, use a properly equipped canoe to demonstrate the following paddling strokes as both a bow and stern paddler: Forward stroke Backstroke Draw For stern paddling only: Reverse sweep For stern paddling only: J-stroke Rudder stroke Stern pry While paddling on one side only, paddle a yard course making at least one turn underway and one reverse of direction.

Using a single-blade paddle and paddling only on one side, demonstrate proper form and use of a combination of a forward stroke, rudder stroke, and stern pry by canoeing to a target 50 yards away.

Repeat while paddling on the other side. Chemistry Changes were made to requirements 5, 6b, and 6c. List the four five classical divisions of chemistry. Briefly describe each one, and tell how it applies to your everyday life. Explain the chemical effects of ozone, and global warming, and acid rain climate change. Pick a current environmental problem as an example.

Briefly describe what people are doing to resolve this hazard and to increase understanding of the problem. Using reasons from chemistry, describe the effect on the environment of ONE of the following: The production of aluminum cans or plastic milk cartons Sulfur from burning coal Burning fossil fuels Used motor oil Newspaper Coin Collecting Requirement 5 was revised. The changes to the requirement are as follows: Do ONE of the following: Demonstrate to your counselor that you know how to use two U.

Read a numismatic magazine or newspaper and tell your counselor about what you learned. Communication Requirement 1a was revised. For one day, keep a log in which you describe your communication activities. Keep track of the time and different ways you spend communicating, such as talking person-to-person, listening to teachers , or the radio , or podcasts , watching television, using social media, reading books and other print media, and using any electronic communication device.

Discuss with your counselor what your log reveals about the importance of communication in your life. Think of ways to improve your communications skills.

Crime Prevention Changes were made to requirements 2 and 8. Prepare a notebook of newspaper and other clippings journal from various sources that addresses crime and crime prevention efforts in your community. Discuss the following with your counselor: How drug abuse awareness programs, such as "Drugs: A Deadly Game," help prevent crime Why alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are sometimes called "gateway drugs" and how "gateway drugs" can lead to the use of other drugs The potential consequences from the misuse of prescription drugs.

How the illegal sale and use of drugs lead to other crimes. Three resources in your city where a person with a drug problem or drug-related problem can go for help d. How the illegal sale and use of drugs lead to other crimes e. How to recognize child abuse f. Discuss each of the following with your merit badge counselor, and then choose ONE of the following and build a circuit to show the techniques used: Tell how you can use electronics for a control purpose, and then build a control device circuit.

Discuss each of the following with your merit badge counselor How to use electronics for a control purpose The basic principles of digital techniques How to use electronics for three different audio applications b. Tell about the basic principles of digital techniques, and then build a digital circuit. Show how to change three decimal numbers into binary numbers, and three binary numbers into decimal numbers.

Show how to change three decimal numbers into binary numbers and three binary numbers into decimal numbers. Tell about three audio applications of electronics, and then build an audio circuit. Choose ONE of the following three projects. For your project, find or create a schematic diagram.

To the best of your ability, explain to your counselor how the circuit you built operates. A control device A digital circuit An audio circuit Show how to read the schematic diagram of the project you choose and, to the best of your ability, explain to your counselor how the circuit you built operates.

Emergency Preparedness Changes were made to requirements 2a, 2b, 6a, and 6c. Discuss with your counselor the aspects of emergency preparedness: Prepare for emergency situations Prevention Respond to emergency situations Protection Recover from emergency situations Mitigation Prevent emergency situations Response Mitigate losses in emergency situations Recovery Include in your discussion the kinds of questions that are important to ask yourself as you consider each of these.

Make a chart that demonstrates your understanding of each of the aspects of emergency preparedness in requirement 2a prepare, respond, recover, prevent, and mitigate with regard to 10 of the situations listed below. You must use situations 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 below in boldface but you may choose any other five listed here for a total of 10 situations.

Discuss this chart with your counselor. Using a chart, graph, spreadsheet, or another method approved by your counselor, demonstrate your understanding of each aspect of emergency preparedness listed in requirement 2a prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery for 10 emergency situations from the list below. You must use the first five situations listed below in boldface, plus any other five of your choice.

Discuss your findings with your counselor. Discuss this information with your counselor and apply what you discover to the chart you created for , utilizing the information you learned from requirement 2b. Energy Changes were made to requirements 1a and 1b. Find With your parent's permission, use the internet to find a blog, podcast, website, or an article on the use or conservation of energy.

Discuss with your counselor what details in the article was were interesting to you, the questions it raises, and what ideas it addresses that you do not understand.

After you have completed requirements 2 through 8, revisit the article you found your source for requirement la. Explain to your counselor what you have learned in completing the requirements that helps you better understand the article.

First Aid Most of the requirements were substantially rewritten and the entire list was renumbered. Satisfy your counselor that you have current knowledge of all first-aid requirements for Tenderfoot, Second Class, and First Class ranks. Explain how you would obtain emergency medical assistance from: Your home A remote location on a wilderness camping trip An activity on open water Define the term triage.

Explain the steps necessary to assess and handle a medical emergency until help arrives. Explain the universal precautions as applied to the transmission of infections.

Discuss the ways you should protect yourself and the victim while administering first aid. Prepare a first-aid kit for your home. Display and discuss its contents with your counselor.

Describe the early signs and symptoms of each of the following and explain what actions you should take: Shock Heart attack Stroke Do the following: Describe the conditions that must exist before performing CPR on a person. Then demonstrate proper CPR technique using a training device approved by your counselor.

Explain the use of an automated external defibrillator AED. Identify the location of the AED at your school, place of worship, and troop meeting place, if one is present. Show the steps that need to be taken for someone suffering from a severe cut on the leg and on the wrist.

Tell the dangers in the use of a tourniquet and the conditions under which its use is justified. Explain when a bee sting could be life threatening and what action should be taken for prevention and for first aid. Describe the signs and symptoms and demonstrate the proper procedures for handling and immobilizing suspected closed and open fractures or dislocations of the Forearm Wrist Upper leg Lower leg Ankle Describe the signs, symptoms, and possible complications and demonstrate care for someone with a suspected injury to the head, neck, or back.

Describe the symptoms, proper first-aid procedures, and possible prevention measures for the following conditions: Describe the conditions under which an injured person should be moved. If a sick or an injured person must be moved, tell how you would determine the best method.

With helpers under your supervision, improvise a stretcher and move a presumably unconscious person. Teach another Scout a first-aid skill selected by your counselor. Gardening Changes were made to requirements 2 and 8. Do the following , and discuss your observations throughout the process with your counselor: Do ONE of the following and record weekly observations. Discuss the results of your project with your counselor: Insect Study Changes were made to requirement 6b.

Describe some general Discuss the use of integrated pest management vs. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Medicine Changes were made to requirements 1, 4a, 4b, 6a, and 9, and requirement 5a was revised and split into 5a and 5b, with old 5b renumbered as 5c. Discuss with your counselor the influence that EIGHT of the following people or events had on the history of medicine health care: Not all may exist in your state.

Respiratory therapist Describe the educational and licensing requirements for five of those in 4a --other than 4a 1 - - practicing to practice health care in your state for FIVE of the professions in requirement 4a.

Not all professions may exist in your state. Tell what is meant by the term "primary care" with regard to a medical specialty. Briefly describe the types of work done by physicians in the following "core" specialties: Describe the additional educational requirements for these specialties. Briefly describe the types of work performed by physicians in FIVE of the following specialties or subspecialties: Physical medicine and rehabilitation Plastic, reconstructive, and maxillofacial surgery.

Preventive medicine Pulmonology Vascular surgery Compare and discuss with your counselor the at least two types of health care delivery systems in the United States, Sweden, and China used throughout the world. Nature Changes were made to requirements 4d1 and 4e1. Personal Fitness Changes were made to requirements 1a, 1a5, and 4c. Before completing requirements 2 through 9, have your health-care practitioner give you a physical examination, using the Scout medical examination form.

Tell what questions the doctor asked about your health. Tell what health or medical recommendations the doctor made and report what you have done in response to the recommendations. The youth risk factors that affect cardiovascular fitness health in adulthood. The need to have a balance in all four five components of physical fitness How a program like ScoutStrong can lead to lifelong healthful habits d.

Plant Science Changes were made to requirement 8 Option 3: Field Botany Visit a park, forest, Scout camp, or other natural area near your home. While you are there: Identify the trees of your neighborhood or a park or section of your town , or a Scout camp.

Public Health Changes were made to requirements 1, 2b, 2c, 5a, 5b, and 7 and new requirement 6c was added. Explain what public health is. Explain how Escherichia coli E. Then, pick any four of the following diseases and explain how each one is contracted and possibly prevented: For all 10 diseases, explain the type or form of the disease viral, bacterial, environmental, toxin , any possible vectors for transmission, ways to help prevent exposure or the spread of infection, and available treatments.

For each disease or condition in requirement 1b, explain: The type or form of the malady viral, bacterial, environmental, toxin Any possible vectors for transmission Ways to help prevent exposure or the spread of infection Available treatments Name five eight diseases against which a young child should be immunized , and two diseases against which everyone should be reimmunized periodically , and one immunization everyone should receive annually.

Using the diseases you chose for requirement 1, discuss the diseases for which there is currently no treatment or immunization. If treatments or immunizations are available for the diseases you chose, discuss others on the list.

Using the list of diseases and conditions in requirement 1b, discuss with your counselor those which currently have no immunization available Visit a municipal wastewater treatment facility OR a solid-waste management operation in your community. Describe how the facility safely treats and disposes of sewage or solid waste. Describe how sewage and solid waste should be disposed of under wilderness camping conditions OR visit the mosquito abatement district facility in your community.

Tell how your community attempts to control the mosquito population and why. Describe how the facility safely treats and disposes of sewage or solid waste Discuss your visit and what you learned with your counselor.

Describe how sewage and solid waste should be disposed of under wilderness camping conditions. Arrange to meet with the food service manager of Visit a food service facility , such as a restaurant or school cafeteria and visit this establishment. Observe food preparation, handling, and storage, and learn how the facility keeps foods from becoming contaminated. Find out what conditions allow microorganisms to multiply in food and how conditions can be controlled to help prevent the growth and dissemination of microorganisms.

Learn how microorganisms in food can be killed. Discuss what you learned with your counselor. Observe food preparation, handling, and storage. Learn how the facility keeps food from becoming contaminated. Find out what conditions allow micro-organisms to multiply in food, what can be done to help prevent them from growing and spreading, and how to kill them.

Discuss the importance of using a thermometer to check food temperatures. Discuss your visit and what you learned with your counselor. Describe the health dangers from abusing illegal and prescription drugs With your parent's and counselor's approval, Do ONE of the following: Discuss how the agency addresses the concerns raised in requirements 1 through 6 and how the services provided by this agency affect your family. Then do the following: Compare the four leading causes of mortality death in your community for any of the past five years with the four leading causes of disease in your community.

Explain how the public health agency you visited is trying to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates of these leading causes of illness and death. Visit your city, county, or state public health agency. Explain the role of the health agency you visited related to the outbreak of diseases. Familiarize yourself with your city, county, or state health agency's website. Discuss the kinds of public assistance the agency is able to provide in case of disasters such as floods, storms, tornadoes, earthquakes, and other acts of destruction.

Your discussion can include the cleanup necessary after a disaster occurs. After completing either 7a or 7b, do the following: Explain the role of your health agency as it relates to the outbreak of diseases. Your discussion can include the cleanup necessary after the disaster.

Radio A change was made to requirement 9d5. Using your receiver, show Show on a map how you located the "fox" using your receiver. Reptile and Amphibian Study Changes were made to the first paragraph of the footnote to requirement 8a. The changes to the footnote are as follows: Scouting Heritage A change was made to requirement 4b, and the footnote to that note has been removed since any Scouts that visited the exhibit are now over Obtain information about this facility.

Give a short report on what you think the role of this museum is in the Scouting program. Sculpture Changes were made to requirement 2a. Model in clay a life-sized human head. Explain to your counselor the method and tools you used to sculpt the figure. Soil and Water Conservation A new requirement 4e was added in after the release of the Boy Scout Requirements book but omitted from the text in the Boy Scout Requirements book.. Explain what an aquifer is and why it can be important to communities.

Theater Changes were made to requirements 1, 3, and 5, requirement 6 was deleted, and a footnote to requirement 1 was added. See or read three full-length plays or scripts. These can be from the stage, movies, television, or video. Discuss with your counselor the plot or story. If you chose to watch the plays, comment on the story, acting , and the staging.

Do Discuss with your counselor the safety precautions that should be practiced when working in a theater to protect the cast and crew. Act a major part in a full-length play; or act a part in three one-act plays. Cast, rehearse, and stage it. The play must be at least 10 minutes long.

Design the set for a play or a theatrical production of a circus. Make a model of it. Design the costumes for five characters in one play a theatrical production set in a historical time before Show skill in stage hair and makeup design.

Make up yourself or a friend as an old man a historical figure , a clown, an extraterrestrial, or a monster as directed. With your counselor's approval, help Help with the building and painting of the scenery for one full-length play or two one-act plays a theatrical production.

With your counselor's approval, design Design the lighting for a play; or , under guidance, handle help install, focus, color, program, and operate the lighting for a play theatrical production.

With your counselor's approval, help install, focus, equalize, program, and operate the sound for a theatrical production. Serve as the stage manager for a theatrical production. Document all cues and stage setups in your calling script. Do two short entertainment features that you could present either alone or with others for a troop meeting or campfire.

Weather Changes were made to requirement 10 by deleting the introduction and requirement 10b, and renumbering requirement 10a as requirement Give a talk of at least five minutes to a group such as your unit or a Cub Scout pack explaining the outdoor safety rules in the event of lightning, flash floods, and tornadoes. Before your talk, share your outline with your counselor for approval. Read several articles about acid rain and give a prepared talk of at least five minutes about the articles to a group such as your unit or a Cub Scout pack.

Wilderness Survival Changes were made to requirements 4, 9, and Describe the steps you would take to survive in the following exposure conditions: Cold and snowy Wet forest Hot and dry desert Windy mountains or plains At or on the water Water ocean, lake, or river Explain how to protect yourself from insects, reptiles, and bears , and other animals of the local region.

Show that you know the proper clothing to wear while in your area on an overnight in in the outdoors during extremely hot weather and in extremely cold weather and during wet conditions. Merit Badges with differences between the current merit badge pamphlet and the Boy Scout Requirements book In the following discussions, text that appears in the Boy Scout Requirements book, which has been replaced or deleted in the merit badge pamphlet, is shown in red italic lettering , while the replacement or new text that appears in the merit badge pamphlets is shown in large Green lettering.

Hike up a mountain where, at some point, you are at least 1, feet higher in elevation from where you started. Hike up a mountain, gaining at least 1, vertical feet. Fire Safety In the edition of the Fire Safety merit badge pamphlet, what was formerly requirement 3 was renumbered as 3a, and the text of a new requirement was added as 3b. Name the most frequent causes of fire in the home and give examples of ways they can be prevented.

Include a discussion about fires caused by smoking in the home, cooking, candles, fireplaces, and electrical appliances. Determine if smoke detectors are required in all dwellings within your municipality. If so, explain which specific types are required. Tell your counselor what type of smoke detectors your house has or needs.

Choose a fire safety-related career that interests you and describe the level of education required and responsibilities of a person in that position. Tell why this position interests you. Fish and Wildlife Management The last sentence of requirement 7c has read "You may visit The wording of this requirement, as it appears in the edition of the Inventing merit badge pamphlet is as follows: Discuss with your counselor the types of inventions that are appropriate to share with others without protecting and explain why.

Tell your counselor about one unpatented invention and its impact on society. Tell your counselor about one nonpatented or noncopyrighted invention and its impact on society.

Personal Fitness When a new Personal Fitness merit badge pamphlet was issued in , it contained information on a "Body Composition Evaluation" which was to replace the former "Body Composition Test", and new wording for requirements 6 and 8.

The wording of requirements 6 and 8 in the Personal Fitness merit badge pamphlet is as follows: Before doing requirements 7 and 8, complete the aerobic fitness, flexibility, and muscular strength tests, along with the body composition evaluation as described in the Personal Fitness merit badge pamphlet.

Record your results and identify those areas where you feel you need to improve. Complete the physical fitness program you outlined in requirement 7. Keep a log of your fitness program activity how long you exercised; how far you ran, swam, or biked; how many exercise repetitions you completed; your exercise heart rate; etc. Repeat the aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and flexibility tests every two weeks and record your results. After the 12th week, repeat all of the required activities in each of the three test categories , record your results, and show improvement in each one.

For the body composition evaluation , compare and analyze your preprogram and postprogram body composition measurements. Discuss the meaning and benefit of your experience, and describe your long-term plans regarding your personal fitness. The wording of requirements 6 and 8 in the Boy Scout Requirements book is as follows: Before doing requirements 7 and 8, complete the aerobic fitness, flexibility, muscular strength, and body composition tests as described in the Personal Fitness merit badge pamphlet.

After the 12th week, repeat the three tests , record your results, and show improvement in each one. For the body composition test , compare and analyze your preprogram and postprogram body composition measurements. The Physical Fitness Tests specified for requirements 6 and 8 are as follows: Aerobic Fitness Test Record your performance on one of the following tests: This last reach must be held steady for 15 seconds to qualify. Remember to keep your knees down. Strength Tests You must do the sit-ups exercise and one other either push-ups or pull-ups.

You may also do all three for extra experience and benefit. Record the number of sit-ups done correctly in 60 seconds.

The sit-ups must be done in the form explained and illustrated in the merit badge pamphlet. Record the total number of pull-ups completed correctly in 60 seconds. Be consistent with the procedures presented in the merit badge pamphlet. Record the total number of push-ups completed correctly in 60 seconds. Click here to see the test procedures presented in the merit badge pamphlet. Step 1 - Multiply your weight in pounds by Step 2 - Divide the figure you get in No.

Step 3 - Divide the figure you get in No. As an example, if you are 15 years old, your weight is pounds, and your height is 5'8" 68" , then: This means your BMI is From the chart in the pamphlet, you are at the 50th percentile.

The wording of this requirement, as it appears in the edition of the Small-Boat Sailing merit badge pamphlet is as follows: Review prevention, symptoms, and first-aid treatment for the following injuries or illnesses that can occur while sailing: Review prevention, symptoms, and first-aid treatment for the following injuries or illnesses that can occur while canoeing: Soil and Water Conservation A number of changes to the text of the requirements for this merit badge were first published in the Soil and Water Conservation merit badge pamphlet A issued in