Introduction to the map

Carrying Capacity and Ecological Footprints

World Population Awareness
This is important, because conventional regression and SDA estimates are obtained without ensuring that there actually exist comparable conserved and non-conserved plots on the distribution of covariates. Every year the Philippines, now with million people, adds about 2 million more mouths to feed and isn't expected to stabilize its population until , at million. Population increase suits governments wanting to please the business community now. It comprises two distinct types of farms: Key issues include the high cost of mineral fertiliser relative to the price of maize - given existing productivity levels - the difficulty of maintaining soil fertility, shortage of livestock to produce manure due to feed shortage and shortage of oxen for farm power. Al Mabrok wanees School, and 3.

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Natural resource management

For unregulated areas national governments are directed to police their own vessels, applying the same standards. If harm to the ocean is found occurring, governments would apply restrictions at their own discretion. The agreement applies to countries that don't belong to the RMO's and will protect fish stocks and sensitive areas. But the Ecology Action Centre said the decision would allow trawlers to continue ravaging the ocean floor.

Responsible fishing nations will bring forward precautionary and targeted regulations that will govern their fishing vessels. Just another example of how regulation fails to mitigate the problems of overpopulation. We assume there will always be another species to exploit after we've completely gone through the last one, but unless we change the way we manage the ocean species, this is the last century of wild seafood.

Historical records show declining yields, in step with declining species diversity. Zones of biodiversity loss also tended to see more beach closures, blooms of algae, and coastal flooding. Experiments in small, contained ecosystems show that reductions in diversity tend to bring reductions in the size and robustness of local fish stocks.

The final part of the jigsaw is data from areas where fishing has been banned or heavily restricted. These show that protection brings back biodiversity within the zone, and restores populations of fish just outside.

We're learning that in the oceans, species are very strongly linked to each other. The study attributes damage to the cumulative harm done across the board. The benefits of marine-protected areas are clear in a few cases; there's no doubt that protecting areas leads to a lot more fish and larger fish, and less vulnerability. Protecting stocks demands the political will, lacking in Europe, where politicians have ignored recommendations to halt the North Sea cod fishery year after year.

Without a ban, the North Sea stocks could follow the Grand Banks cod of eastern Canada into terminal decline. I was working on a North Sea trawler a few years after World War II and the catches were the largest ever seen, the crew told me. This was due to the halt in trawling for about 4 years during the war. One wonders just how long it would take for the fisheries to regain their volume if in rotation we halted fishing in the various areas?

An international team of researchers launched the Bahamas Biocomplexity Project--an interdisciplinary approach to ecosystem management to serve as a model for coral reef conservation. The approach recognizes that natural and human systems are linked, and solutions must transcend traditional boundaries. The Bahamas Biocomplexity Project, in addition to using scientific tools, underwater surveys and population genetics, conduct surveys to assess local attitudes toward conservation, as well as explaining their findings to local decision makers.

A study focused on the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park, which was struck by a mysterious disease that virtually wiped out a species of sea urchin that feeds on algae.

The urchins had played a vital role in the reef ecosystem by controlling the spread of seaweed. With the urchins gone, the job of chief seaweed grazer was taken over by the parrotfish which in turn, are preyed upon by large carnivores, whose numbers had increased since the imposition of a fishing ban. Today, Nassau grouper is seven times more abundant inside the park than in three comparable areas. Researchers found that small species of parrotfish were smaller than usual, suggesting that grouper predators were picking off the largest members of their populations.

In contrast, the number of big parrotfish increased apparently in response to protection from fish traps. The study concluded that seaweed grazing had doubled because of the burgeoning population of big parrotfish.

Parks protecting fishes may also have beneficial effects on corals, by enhancing grazing and thereby contributing to the ability of reefs to bounce back from disturbances.

One group team compared the DNA of staghorn corals collected from nine reefs. The results show that genetic family lines can be quite distinct on reefs as close as two kilometers. All reefs more than kilometers apart were genetically distinct. Some marine ecologists advocate restoring dying reefs, but that approach is rarely cost-effective, with a growth rate of about one centimeter per year.

Social scientists working within the Bahamas Biocomplexity Project, noted: There is a special relationship between the people and the sea. Tourism is based on environmental protection. Three researchers analyzed catches of five deepwater species from the northwest Atlantic and found that populations of all five had fallen precipitously. Similar trends have been seen in European waters. Much of the blame is being put on commercial trawlers. Conservationists worry that because deepwater fish live long lives, and can take up to 25 years to sexually mature, overfishing can wipe them out.

This brings back a very personal memory. In the 's I was developing deep water fishing sonar and made frequent trips on deep sea trawlers to the arctic. Fishing after WW2, during which time little deep sea fishing was carried out, was fantastic. The volume of fish caught was beyond anyone's memory. I well remember the trawler sitting stationary for about 24 hours while the fish captured by one haul of the net was processed. Perhaps "No Fishing" for five to ten years would allow the oceans to regenerate the shoals of fish.

The Bush administration proposed legislation to overhaul management of the nation's fisheries, by giving regulators greater flexibility and encouraging them to privatize fisheries. Some environmental groups applauded privatization, others said the bill would weaken conservation rules. Bush's legislation would amend the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which was last updated in The Senate's Commerce Committee has been working on a draft of its own bill.

The administration's plan would double by the fisheries that are privatized where access is limited to those who own allocated shares, that can be bought and sold, of the annual catch.

Some environmental groups, support privatization because it gives fishermen a financial incentive to conserve fidh stocks. In fisheries where such programs have been implemented, fishermen have enjoyed higher profits, lower costs, longer fishing seasons and a more stable industry. The program has been popular in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, but controversial in New England because of fears that it would allow corporations to take over the fisheries.

The goal is to encourage eight new fisheries to use privatization programs. In New England, one could be on Cape Cod, where fishermen use hooks and gill nets to catch cod and haddock in near-shore waters. The Bush plan would revoke the requirement that all fisheries be restored to healthy levels in 10 years and limits the number of fishing days given to New England groundfish boats. The Bush plan would allow regional councils to address the needs of fishing communities when rebuilding stocks.

The change would allow fishermen to catch more fish while stocks are rebuilding, and conservation groups worry that this would increase the chance that a species could collapse. Some species, such as Georges Bank cod, have not recovered since the mids. Fishermen continue to take too many adult cod and not enough juvenile fish are surviving. A professor of natural resources said the new numbers show the government needs to impose further restrictions on fishing cod.

But a spokeswoman for the New England Fishery Management Council said officials did not expect the rebuilding plan to show results for several more months. The average New England fisherman can take groundfish 53 days a year, down from 88 days in Cod once abounded off the Massachusetts coas, but fell in the mids because of overfishing.

Conservationists said the declining numbers mean federal authorities should protect nursery habitat as well as adult fish. A spokeswoman for NOAA's Fisheries Service, said under federal law regulators have to allow overfishing at times to minimize a rebuilding plan's impact on local commercial fishermen. She added that this week's scientific findings are preliminary. The National Marine Fisheries Service has released new guidelines for restoring depleted fish stocks, but some worry the rules unduly favor the fishing industry.

Current rules mandate that regional fisheries managers aim to restore stocks within 10 years. The proposed rules would let them devise timelines for restoration based on how long it would take to rebound if there were no fishing, plus the average time it takes the species to reach spawning age.

This may lengthen the time managers have to restore some stocks. The new rules would also allow coordinated management of species that live, swim, and get netted together, assuming that fish with similar life histories will respond to similar management plans. But species might be minor to a commercial fishery but still play a key role in an ecosystem. Regulators voted to impose a permanent ban on trawling in depths beyond fathoms in nearly , square miles of Pacific waters off the West Coast.

The regulations apply to waters that extend from three miles to miles off the coasts of California, Oregon and Washington. It is aimed at protecting coral beds, kelp forests, rocky reefs and other sensitive fish habitat. Trawl fishermen were skeptical it would boost declining stocks of groundfish but did not think the ban would hurt their livelihoods because most of the areas are too deep for trawlers. Environmentalists say trawling destroys delicate sea-floor habitat, but fishermen say there's no evidence that trawl fishing has affected groundfish stocks that make up West Coast commercial fishing.

The council's decision follows a similar move by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, which regulates waters off the coast of Alaska. They voted to ban trawling in more than , square miles off the Aleutian Islands.

But the trade may empty the waters of this master of the sea. In the last 35 years, exploding markets have devastated many fisheries. Most vulnerable is the population that breeds in the Gulf of Mexico. This was underscored by researchers who have tracked fish using electronic tags. The tuna that spawn in the west are further threatened by an ever-broadening fishery, all to supply the Japanese sushi trade.

The new study is based on a decade-long effort to implant hundreds of sophisticated electronic tags in the giant fish that are beginning to reveal their ocean paths. In this study, fish were tagged with devices that continually record body and water temperature, depth and daylight. The team showed that there appear to be distinct populations of bluefin, but when the fish disperse across to feed, they mingle, rendering the management boundary, which runs along the 45th meridian, relatively meaningless.

Big quotas, granted for two decades to countries fishing east of the line, probably added pressure to the ailing western bluefin population. Spawning "hot spots" overlap areas where boats, using long lines of baited hooks, pursue another tuna species. When big adult bluefin get caught, the warm water and their metabolism can push them beyond their physiological limits and many die before they can be released.

Recommended are seasonal bans on long-line fishing in spawning hot spots in the gulf and tighter controls on fishing in the Central Atlantic. American boat owners say that restrictions on long-line fishing in the Gulf are sufficient. Long-liners in the area use lightweight hooks that hold smaller yellowfin but are designed to uncoil under the powerful tug of a bluefin.

Block said the same smaller hooks caught and killed a substantial number of bluefin. The biggest question is whether the new information can change an international regulatory regime that almost everyone, agrees is broken. A senior fisheries official from Japan acknowledged that the existing system had failed. He said that eastern catch limits needed to be better enforced, and a particular problem was the increased penning of Mediterranean tuna, which disrupts spawning.

Many scientists and scholars who study tuna fishing said they doubted much would change. Under the longstanding division of the Atlantic bluefin population, Europe has had the advantage, with quotas of more than 30, metric tons of bluefin a year; less than a tenth that is allocated for western waters.

Several experts said that Dr. Block's maps, showing the movements of some tuna for more than four years, were sufficiently concrete that they could force an end to the prolonged stalemate. The bottom of Cape Cod Bay is saturated with sound that is part of an ever louder man-made din that's filling the world's oceans, and some say harming marine life. Whale beachings have been linked to sonar blasts, but a broader concern is rising levels of background noise generated by commercial shipping.

Marine life uses sound for navigation and communication and scientists believe the spreading "acoustic smog" is affecting feeding, breeding and other crucial activities. Evidence is scant of the real effects of sound and even with new technology, ocean animals are hard to track. No system exists to monitor ocean sounds worldwide, and the data is often taken from a small number of sites that measure only certain frequencies. Underwater sound also seems to affect different animals in completely different ways.

An acoustics researcher at the NOAA said better research is urgently needed. Sound carries farther and faster in water than air and through the ages, marine animals have learned to take advantage of the ocean's natural sound stages. Whales talk about basic things like where the best food or breeding is.

They even seem to to produce the most intricate songs. Some animals use the ocean's "sound channels" to communicate over thousands of miles. Animals have learned that, at a certain depth, the sound bounds ahead with little resistance. Huge increases in commercial shipping have coincided with increased ocean noise. Between and , the world shipping fleet has increased from 85 million tons to million tons and the background noise has increased roughly 15 decibels.

There's evidence marine mammals are changing their sound patterns, which could show their normal communication has been disrupted. Some advocate installing quieter propellers in new ships, which would reduce noise and also increase the efficiency by which ships move through water. Retrofitting current ships would be expensive, and the benefit is uncertain. Sound is perceived by ocean animals so differently that it's almost like a different sense, making it hard to apply what we know about the effects of certain decibel levels to ocean life.

Thirty-four species of marine mammals inhabit the Gulf of California, one of the world's most important nursery and feeding areas for porpoises, dolphins and whales. For millions of years, the sediments and freshwater of the Colorado River fed into the Gulf of California.

During the 20th century, however, heavy water diversion depleted the river, cutting it off almost entirely from the sea. No more than vaquita marinas survive, the last remaining habitat of this small porpoise. Eight were reported dead in , but estimates put the total number of annual deaths at roughly The Gulf provides half of the Mexixo's fish supply including sharks, northern milkfish, Spanish mackerel, corvine and others. Each year the humpback whale, California gray whale, manta ray and leatherback turtle visit the Gulf, where abundant nutrients can be found year-round.

Rich food sources, powerful tides and shallow waters make the Upper Gulf one of the most robust marine ecosystems in the world. Bottom trawling consists of dragging a heavy net across the bottom of the ocean, to snag fish that hover close to the seabed.

The Deep Sea Conservation Coalition is spearheading the call for a moratorium on the practice and says the technique is doing harm to fragile ecosystems by gouging out corals. It has been likened to fishing with a bulldozer.

A single net can snare a tonne and a half of cold-water corals that grow very slowly, every hour. Some of them off Europe are 8, years old and may take hundreds or thousands of years to recover - if at all. The fleets are after valuable fish species that hug the underwater mountains. Scientists fear bottom-trawling will destroy many of the reefs before researchers can study them.

Much of the life on seamounts has yet to be catalogued. Discussions are underway at the UN on fisheries and ocean managemen that will result in resolutions next month. The Coalition is urging the UN to declare a global moratorium until the international community decides how to manage deep-sea fisheries. The construction of liquid natural gas terminals could damage commercial fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. Concerns forced the Coast Guard to suspend the permit for at least two terminals off the Louisiana coast.

The problem occurs when the liquid natural gas LNG , is heated to gaseous form with Gulf water containing fish and crustacean eggs and larvae. LNG is cooled to minus degrees to turn it into a liquid to be shipped in tankers from wells around the world. The terminals pump seawater and LNG through a piece of equipment where warm Gulf water heats the liquid, which vaporizes into a gas.

The water would be cooled in the process, and if the organisms are not killed by the temperature drop, they won't survive the pump machinery or chemicals used to keep the pipes clean. This system would dump the water, 20 degrees to 30 degrees cooler, back into the Gulf, where it could continue to stun and kill sea life. Most of the companies choosing this system have said using a closed-loop system consumes too much LNG as a heat source and undercut the financial viability of the projects and increase air pollution.

Sierra Club officials say approval could threaten the fishing industry. The risk of wiping out species of important fish in the Gulf, is too great to allow further approvals. In several cases, applicants failed to identify the economic impact of lost fisheries. Flow-through systems should be avoided in favor of closed-loop systems. The locations of the terminals are a problem as most are offshore of the estuaries where fish live and reproduce. With 15 LNG terminals proposed for the Gulf, officials have become concerned about the potential effects as they don't know enough about how the terminals will affect the environment.

Federal scientists warn that liquid natural gas terminals could damage commercial fishing in the Gulf of Mexico and force the Coast Guard to suspend permits for two terminals off the Louisiana coast. When the liquid natural gas is heated back into a gas the process sucks in Gulf water containing potentially millions of fish and crustacean eggs and larvae. The terminals would pump the seawater and natural gas through a piece of equipment where the warm Gulf water would vaporize the liquid into a gas and the water would be rapidly cooled.

If the organisms are not killed by the temperature drop, they won't survive the pump machinery or the chemicals used to clean the inside of the pipes. The system would then dump the water, 20 degrees to 30 degrees cooler, back into the Gulf, where it could continue to harm sea life. The process also would kill organisms that are food for fish.

Using a less-damaging closed-loop system consumes too much of the natural gas as a heat source and might undercut the financial viability of the projects and increase air pollution. It is the money these terminals generate that is attractive to officials in the Gulf Coast states. Sierra Club officials say approval could threaten the fishing industry and NOAA officials say the risk of wiping out entire species of commercially important fish is too great to allow further approval and applicants failed to identify the economic impact of lost fisheries.

Concerns must be weighed in light of an lack of basic information about the population of various fish and crustacean species and a limited understanding of how the viability of eggs or larvae could affect those species. The locations of the terminals are a problem as most are offshore of the estuaries where many fish live and reproduce. With as many as 15 LNG terminals now proposed for the Gulf, NOAA Fisheries and state officials have become concerned about the potential effects and officials don't know how the terminals will affect the environment.

Coast Guard officials notified Shell that the Gulf Landing permitting process had been suspended until company officials adequately addressed the NOAA Fisheries concerns and suspended the permit application process until the company could justify its conclusion that "egg and larvae impacts are negligible" compared with the amount of sea life in the area.

Canada's port cities spew billions of litres of untreated sewage into open waters. John's discharge human waste and toxic chemicals with little or no treatment. Canada is working to develop a treatment program by , regulated by Environment Canada. Victoria discharged 2, tonnes of oil and grease, nine tonnes of copper and 2. Lead, silver, mercury and other chemicals were also found. Canada is failing to meet the standards of the US and Europe. Lawrence annually while Dawson City continues to discharge one billion litres and Victoria dumps 34 billion litres of sewage into the ocean each year.

These chemicals play havoc with sea birds, mammals and marine life and ultimately are consumed by humans through the fish we eat. A Victoria sewage spokesman said the report neglects the steps Victoria has taken to prevent harmful chemicals from entering the sewers and plans to show its strategy has cut the amount in the system.

The environmental groups said Canadians are entitled to efficient sewage treatment, national standards and adequate funding. The world's annual capture fisheries and aquaculture production has plateaued at million tonnes. If China's aquaculture production is excluded, the world fisheries production including aquaculture, has declined steadily. Demand for seafood continues to outstrip even world population growth and a global shortfall of up to 80 million tonnes per annum is forecast within the next 30 years.

Declines in capture fisheries reflect illegal and unregulated fishing, impacts on fish habitats, coastal development, regulation of rivers, urban and agriculture runoff and global warming. A major contributor is exploitation of uncertainty over the nature of change and assessment of causes. Subsidies in developed countries, coupled with trade barriers against countries using cheaper labour costs are used to disadvantage poorer countries.

International trade may alleviate poverty for some countries but makes fish as food increasingly unattainable in poor areas. Allocation of resources is not a panacea for fisheries management problems as it is not preceded by an understanding of the measures necessary to ensure conservation.

Aquaculture is anticipated to play an increased role in future demand for seafood but if China's figures are excluded, increases in aquaculture production in the last 10 years have not equalled declines in capture fisheries. To meet projected demands for an extra 80 million tonnes would require 4 countries to copy China's 20 million tonne increase in production. Aquaculture in consumes, as feed, twice the weight of fish it produces.

The growth in aquaculture production has occurred in developing countries, suggesting benefits to the poor. However, detailed analyses show concerns with destruction of coastal fish habitats in construction of aquaculture enterprises, increased propagation of fish diseases, negative impacts from translocation of species and the use, as feed, of fish traditionally available for human consumption. In several assessments the loss of this fish as food for poor communities is recognised.

Furthermore, increased targeting of smaller fish driven by the demand for aquaculture feed, is damaging to ecosystems, and existing commercial fisheries. There are well managed fisheries that produce high yields sustainably and aquaculture ventures that provide incomes and food security for the poor, based on acknowledgement of the impact of external influences, cutting-edge research, and management responses.

Science and technological development can meet most challenges that are given priority and resources. Toxins in sperm whale blubber indicate that chemicals have dispersed thoughout the ocean. The goals of this study are whale conservation and whale health to gauge the overall well-being of the ocean. Biopsies of about 30 of 1, blubber samples gathered throughout the world showed that all may contain levels of man-made toxins. The International Whaling Commission is a coalition of nations that abide by conservation guidelines.

A second round of tests will determine the amount of toxins in the blubber. An adult female whale has a toxic load which is going to be passed to her young and could build up over generations.

The most common chemical in sperm whale blubber is DDT, banned in North America in but still manufactured for use in other countries. The findings are compelling, but the research must be validated. Sperm whales live fairly far from shore and it's surprising to find these chemicals in deep-water animals. Their long life spans and fat stores are indicators of the health of ocean life. They feed on giant squid, which feed on pelagic fish and so the chemicals go up the food chain and they are the final sink for pollutants.

In addition to sampling whale blubber, the study is using sonar to estimate the total whale population in the world and plot migration patterns. EU ministers agreed to fishing quotas with a compromise to keep fishermen afloat while preserving fish stocks. The 15 nations agreed on catch quotas and shelved plans for cuts to quotas for cod in waters off Denmark and western Scotland. The fish is at risk of extinction in EU waters with stocks at the lowest. There was agreement on long-term recovery plans for hake, another endangered species.

Britain declared this a good deal for UK fishermen, with increases in permitted catches next year for haddock and prawns, and an increase to 15 in the number of days per month trawlers can put to sea. Fleets are pledged to avoid taking cod from certain fishing grounds to allow stocks to recover.

The EU said it kept the industry alive, while the recovery plans for cod and hake had been set. The livelihoods of , people are at stake over quotas but stocks of cod have shrunk in the North Sea to about one-tenth of the level in Urgent measures were needed to protect the EU from what happened in the waters off eastern Canada in the s, where overfishing resulted in the disappearance of cod and still have not recovered.

An alliance of conservation groups is arguing that beluga stocks are declining and the quota for beluga caviar exports should be zero. Fish and Wildlife Service is considering a request to list beluga sturgeon as an endangered species. As a result of monitoring and managing fish stocks and poaching, the situation is starting to turn around.

The caviar trade by Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan was halted in Iran joined the effort. Beluga stocks are recovering and the catch and export quotas were set below earlier levels. The Bush administration is rewriting federal rules to limit states' influence on what happens off their coasts.

A letter signed by Rep. Lois Capps D-Santa Barbara and 90 other members of Congress calls the revision a "pernicious assault on states' rights. Gray Davis' administration said the changes would weaken authority over offshore drilling while the Bush administration asserts that federal agencies are the experts on environmental impacts to a state's coastline. They would give greater weight to federal agencies by eliminating the deference given to state agencies.

The administration claimed that there is nothing that would limit states' rights. The Commerce Department completed a "comprehensive revision" of those rules in the days of Clinton's presidency. Now it is revising them again. Oil companies support the new rules and would like the process to be predictable and clearly defined.

Opponents claim that the Bush administration wants to get rid of delays by governors slowing or stopping federal development and see the rule changes as an end-run around December's ruling which blocked oil drilling until the California Coastal Commission reviews them for environmental hazards.

Those leases are to expire after 5years, the Bush administration is seeking to extend them, opposed by state officials. The flow of sediments and nutrients into the reef has increased four-fold since European settlement.

In the past few years unusually hot sea water has caused two coral bleaching events, the worst ever. Queensland organisms such as soft corals, sponges and starfish may be valuable for anti-tumour compounds that may prove successful against human cancers. The government has proposed a six-fold increase in protected areas within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. At an international conference organized by Conservational International, ocean activists recommended limiting overfishing and pollution in sensitive breeding grounds which lie in the open sea but acknowledges it won't be easy to regulate international waters.

Coastal development, pollution, and climate change, are devastating marine life. Marine biologists claim that fishermen could catch more than they do today while causing less damage. The problem dates to , when the Stratton Commission report led to the creation of the National Marine Fisheries Service. But this reflected the emphasis on exploitation and sales. Now the oceans need a respite of several years of reduced catches and there are success stories where depleted fisheries are being restored.

Fishermen working off Canada's Atlantic provinces did not reduce their catches as cod populations collapsed in the s and this year the region had to be closed to fishing. Bottom-scraping trawl nets have scarred sensitive environments at the seabed. There is a demand for policies to reduce the tons of marine life and sea birds that are unintentionally hooked or entangled every year. Shrimp trawls in the Gulf of Mexico capture an estimated 20 million juvenile red snapper every year.

Patagonian long-line fishing killed more than , seabirds in 3 years. Every year, 20, acres of coastal spawning grounds are lost because of coastal development. Those that remain are polluted with runoff and toxins, rendering them less productive. Ocean experts say the nation needs an independent agency devoted to ocean health, free of the political missions and biases.

Scientists and fishermen call for a network of protected marine reserves in which underwater communities could thrive and "reseed". Consumers can help by buying only fish that are relatively abundant. Those left are only one half to one fifth the size than those caught before industrialized fishing began in The biological destruction is unprecedented in its scope and rapidity and blasts the idea that the oceans have uncaught fish waiting to be discovered.

Other ocean creatures are faring no better. The group that includes dolphins and porpoises, are also in critical danger. Those fish most prized as human foodstuff: Technology such as sonar and satellite methods of finding the ocean's warm fronts where fish once congregated have generated the problem.

The populations of big fish are so depleted that people spend more time and energy to catch fewer fish. Other species may recover if levels of fishing are cut immediately. More people mean more fertilizer, sewage and animal waste flowing into Puget Sound, providing rich nutrients for algae. Clams, mussels, oysters, geoducks and pink scallops filter algae from seawater, producing toxins.

When people eat infected shellfish, the neurotoxin can cause breathing difficulties, nausea, paralysis and death. The relationship between algae blooms and human activities remains unclear. Algae require nitrogen and other nutrients, but it is not understood what are the nutrients that fuels the blooms. Most of the closed shellfish beds are off limits because of high levels of fecal coliform or dangerous pollutants, such as mercury. If you go south you've got more pollution, and if you go north you've got more paralytic shellfish poison.

Among environmentalists, a baseline is a reference point for measuring the health of ecosystems. The baseline for any given habitat would be what was there before humans had much impact and if we know the baseline we can work to restore it. If the baseline shifted before we chart it, then we end up accepting a degraded state as normal. Environmental groups are trying to decide what we want nature to look like in the future.

Data from around the world make the case that overfishing and humans have had an effect on the oceans so that it is difficult to imagine how full of life they used to be. The baselines have shifted for ocean ecosystems and there is disagreement on the future.

Some biologists argue that, as the desirable species are stripped out, we will be left with the hardiest, most undesirable species, jellyfish and bacteria. The coral reefs of Jamaica have been degraded into mounds of dead corals covered by algae.

Upcoming reports conclude that the oceans are in severe decline. The solutions are known and we must work to prevent their further decline.

Our environment has suffered and our lives have suffered in other ways as well. Seven out of 10 commercial fish species are fully or overexploited. The number of poisonous algal species identified by scientists has nearly tripled since , increasing fish kills, beach closures, and economic losses. People obtain an average of 16 percent of their animal protein from fish. Most of the extensive grasslands in the region are either under the control of the government and designated as wildlife and conservation areas for national parks about 10 percent of the land area or are open access or common property resources.

Access to these resources and the conditions under which they can be used are under national laws, but frequently traditional land use rights are granted by local communities. Traditionally, long-term sustainability of these rangelands has been ensured by agreed management norms, but these are increasingly breaking down as lands privatize, crop farmers migrate to pastoral areas and human needs grow. Governments are also reducing support to pastoral peoples, who are often marginalized in national affairs IFAD, Options for income generation and alternative land uses for extensive grasslands for pastoralists are limited and can lead to overutilization and land degradation if none of the users take responsibility for the management and sustainability of the system.

Common property and traditional access regimes with sustainable range management institutions and resource sharing arrangements were practiced in the region until the colonial era IFAD, and continue in some areas today. These were and are based on a transhumance grazing system developed over many years to exploit the ecological heterogeneity and make optimal use of the scarce resources of grazing and water throughout the year. These traditional management practices include grazing rotation strategies and establishment of grazing preserves for the dry season.

Drought is the most serious challenge facing pastoralists in the region and access to land and water are often the cause of conflict between pastoralists, ranchers and crop-livestock farmers Mkutu, Traditional systems of access to water are common in most countries in the region.

The pastoralists of northern Somalia and southern Ethiopia also have a complex and well -regulated system of well management to regulate water use, as well as traditional informal and formal social controls on use of common property and open property resources to ensure sustainable use of the grassland and water resources Niamir, This is exemplified by herder response to drought and conflict in southern Somalia, where herders move camels and cattle great distances to good pastures in times of drought, while they graze small stock closer to home Little, [].

Over the last century, these indigenous range management institutions have been weakened by demographic, political and social change in the region. The greatest threat to the traditional pastoralist system comes from the rapid population growth of the last twenty years and conversion of communal grassland to open access state property or private land, which has led to more grassland being used for smallholder crop-livestock farming.

Policies have constrained the movement of pastoralists and promoted sedentarization and many permanent settlements have been established in the rangelands; with many pastoralists choosing to shift their production systems to include crop-livestock farming Galaty, ; Campbell et al.

Kajiado District, Kenya, land use conflict reflects ongoing competition over access to scarce land and water resources between herders, farmers and wildlife - competition that has intensified strongly over the last 40 years, after the district became open to outside migrants. Today, farming extends into the wetter margins of the rangelands, along rivers and around swamps. This has reduced the area available for grazing and the ease of access to water for both domestic stock and wildlife.

Political alliances have emerged among land managers to gain or maintain control of critical land and water resources and to influence policy on agriculture, wildlife and tourism and land tenure Campbell et al. Another well -documented example of this is from the Beja pastoralists in northeastern Sudan, who, as a result of drought, are changing their nomadic way of life as camel and smallstock herders to more settled, smallholder farming and rearing of small ruminants.

Like other pastoralists in the region, they find that small ruminants are easy to manage near the homestead, cost less, are more easily sold and breed more quickly than camels Pantuliano, Government policies have supported cropping and reduction of communal grazing land and, more recently, mobility patterns and access to key resources have been constrained by conflict and civil insecurity. Many Beja now move very little or not at all, reducing their capacity to make effective use of the rangeland from the perspective of livestock production.

As Beja settle, vegetation around settlements has changed, with the disappearance of seven palatable species and an increase in unpalatable species Pantuliano, These changes are typical of those faced by pastoralists across the region. Even so, many families or parts of families still send the younger family members for transhumance in the dry season while the women and older family members remain on the farm to take care of the crops and smallstock. The national land tenure systems of the region are unrelated to the traditional land tenure and access regimes of the pastoralist groups.

In Ethiopia, the Sudan and Somalia, all land is state owned and cropping land can be leased from or allocated by the government.

In Somalia, land tenure is under a mixture of traditional and modern legal systems Amadi, The Land Reform Act of Somalia gave land for state enterprises and mechanized agriculture Unruh, ; pastoralists only had rights as part of government-sponsored cooperatives and associations, and were forced to move from their traditional lands to more marginal lands with open access.

All land belonged to the state and 50year leases were provided to users, although many enclosures were not legally leased and ownership was respected by local communities under traditional systems Amadi, Following the conflict and the absence of a central government, the deregulation of land tenure and unauthorized enclosure of pastoral land for grass production by entrepreneurs for export livestock production to Kenya left poor herders and agropastoralists with little livelihood security de Waal, For the Sudan, the government recognizes rights of possession over land but also reserves the right to acquire land from local owners for the state Amadi, In neighbouring Eritrea, land is owned by the community, and land tenure is governed by traditional laws and administered under traditional village administrative bodies Amadi, Land tenure in Uganda is very complex, reflecting the rich history of the country.

Mailo tenure is particular to the Buganda area of the country and dates back to when the king kabaka of the Buganda people shared land among the chiefs to own in perpetuity. In , the Land Reform Decree made all land public with title vested in the Uganda Land Commission, and allowed leasehold tenure Busingye, Although the mailo system was officially abolished, it continued until the late s, when the Constitution and the Land Act of were implemented.

Freehold tenure was also granted by the state and later by the Land Commission, mostly to institutions for religious and educational purposes Busingye, The Constitution and Land Act also identified a new land tenure system called customary tenure.

The land is held, used and disposed of following the customary regulation of the community, and people using the land have some rights. Customary tenure is the most common system in the rangelands Amadi, The emphasis is on use, which is controlled by the family, who distribute land to male family members for their use rather than ownership.

Customary tenure also includes the communal land, where users have rights to grazing, farming, fuelwood, access to water and land for traditional uses and burial grounds Busingye, Ownership is through the family or community, and there are no individual ownership rights. Traditional authorities allocate the land and resolve disputes.

In addition some land was declared Crown Lands in , and areas are still held by the state under the Uganda Land Commission as protected areas, some of which are now open access.

The land tenure system in the United Republic of Tanzania is a legacy of colonial rule, with all lands being public land and remain vested in the President as a trustee for and on behalf of all citizens of Tanzania Nyongeza, ; Shivji, The state grants rights of occupancy and tolerates customary occupation and use of land.

All public land is categorized under three types: General, Reserved or Village land, which are each managed and administered by ministry officials. The Commissioner for Lands has the power to allocate land on the general, and even reserved, lands.

When a village registers its land, the title deeds are held in trust for the whole village by the Village Chairman and Council. Numerous land-related conflicts exist in Tanzania, partly caused by conflicting land use policies. The Villagization Programme concentrated people together, displacing some and allocating them land that was taken from others. Some of the villages were relocated into reserved land, thus creating pockets of habitation and cultivation in protected areas.

With the economic liberalization in the mid s, large-scale land alienation occurred, in particularly in the Arusha region, where vast parts of rangelands were leased out to large-scale farmers Igoe and Brockington, Village land can also be allocated by the government, if it is not registered or its use can not be demonstrated. To secure their title deeds, many pastoralists started cultivating. Much of the rangeland areas in Tanzania have been categorized as reserved lands, having been set aside as national parks, game reserves or game controlled areas, thus making them inaccessible for herders and their livestock Brockington, Land tenure in Kenyan pastoral systems has evolved rapidly over the last half century.

About the s, Kenyan colonial authorities introduced an entirely new type of land use to rangeland ecosystems: In subsequent years, the Kenya Game Department transferred the management of game reserves in Maasailand to local District Councils.

Most of these conservation areas were established in the dry season grazing reserve for pastoral people, livestock and wildlife. This change in land tenure appropriated these critical resources for use by wildlife alone for the first time. Also in the mids, the Kenya Government gave pastoral groups title deeds to large tracts of grazing land that they had used traditionally over a long period Lawrance Report, Each member shared ownership of the entire ranch under the Group Representatives Act, , but the livestock were owned by individual members Lamprey and Waller, Although these ranches were large Koyake Group Ranch in the Mara area is km 2 and group ranch boundaries were relatively porous to livestock and wildlife movement, these group ranches started to circumscribe who could live where in the ecosystem.

The group ranch system was instituted more strongly in the wetter rangelands in the south and just north of Mt. Kenya; arid rangelands further northwest and northeast were largely unaffected by this change in tenure.

Since the early s, group ranches have been adjudicated and are becoming privatized Galaty, Areas near towns and roads were the first to be privatized. For example, the rangeland nearest to Nairobi was privatized in the early s, while other group ranches in drier areas are currently undergoing subdivision. Pastoral land owners are struggling to balance the trade-offs of private tenure: Groups and families are trying to address these problems with reciprocal grazing arrangements and establishment of community wildlife reserves.

This process has partly been driven by pastoral peoples throughout Kenya beginning to settle permanently to have access to schools, health care and other business opportunities in the higher potential areas. At the same time, pastoral people want to secure their ownership rights as they see large tracts of communal land leased to outsiders for mechanized agriculture.

Privatization of land in pastoral areas robs pastoral peoples of one of their greatest assets: This has been used as an argument in favour of privatization. However, most communal access to pastoral land and water is not unregulated, rather it is governed by traditional rules of access controlling who uses the land and water, where and when.

These rules were designed to sustain grassland productivity for the use of all in communally shared lands. The overgrazing issue is discussed below, applicable to both communal and privatized land.

As pastoral systems evolve and herders avoid drought and disasters through diversification and risk management, sedentarization and settlement to improve income-earning capacity is occurring in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia Little et al. There continues to be an expansion of cropping in areas where agriculture is feasible, to allow herders to better manage risk and respond to drought Little et al.

As cropping expands into the rangelands of the region, grasslands have become an integral part of crop-livestock systems. Nearly all grassland areas in developing countries are grazed CAST, One viable alternative for settled crop-livestock farmers in the region is to use cultivated forage grasses to support livestock production and reduce the pressure on the natural grassland.

Cultivated forages have received less attention from breeders than other crops CAST, However, recent expansion in dairying, especially around urban areas in eastern Africa, and the anticipated increased demand for livestock production proposed by Delgado et al. Inclusion of grasses into a crop-livestock system can also have positive environmental benefits. Vegetation cover can be improved through transfer of seeds and trampling and breaking soil crusts and fertility improved by manure deposited during grazing Steinfeld, de Haan and Blackburn , Fallow and grassland rotations improve soil fertility and minimize soil erosion, while reduced nutrient losses from manure from livestock fed on grasses in a cut-and-carry system double the effective availability of nitrogen and phosphorus and can be put back into the system to maintain nutrient balances de Haan, Steinfeld and Blackburn , Rhodes grass and elephant grass are among the earliest tropical grasses grown in eastern Africa, since the start of the twentieth century.

They have been widely planted for livestock production in Kenya and Uganda since the s Boonman, and are an important part of crop-livestock systems in higher-potential areas. Grass rotations and fallowing of crop lands were common practices to provide soil cover and restore organic matter some 50 years ago, but this practice has reduced due to increasing population pressure and demand for crop land Boonman, Due to scarcity of land, most dairy farmers in the heavily populated highlands of eastern Africa now practice a cut-and-carry zero grazing system.

Currently, elephant grass is the most important forage crop in dairy systems in the Central Kenya Highlands Staal et al. In Kenya alone, more than 0. The demand is so high that landless farmers plant along highway verges and on communal land to cut and sell to stock owners.

Rhodes grass has also been widely used for improved pastures due to its wide adaptation and vigorous root system, which confers reasonable tolerance to drought and persistence under grazing and makes it suitable for erosion control, and of value for hay making Boonman, It shows some cold tolerance, and several commercial varieties have been developed in Kenya.

Another cultivated grass with wide adaptability that is being grown in eastern Africa is setaria Setaria sphacelata. Herbage yield can equal Rhodes grass and it is more persistent at higher altitudes, up to about 3 m above sea level, and can tolerate frost and seasonal waterlogging Boonman, However, it is not as drought tolerant as Rhodes grass and has a tendency to invade agricultural land, and can become weedy and difficult to eradicate.

Although its use reduced in Kenya during the s, it is still a useful grass in wetter and higher-altitude areas, and it is now gaining importance for use in soil stabilization and erosion control along bunds in Tanzania and central Kenya Boonman, Unfortunately, none of these options for improved forage production are available to settled pastoralists across the vast dryland areas of the region.

Expansion of cropland, intensification of livestock production and changes in land tenure are common forces for change in pastoral systems around the world Niamir-Fuller, ; Blench, As described earlier, pastoralists are thus either pushed onto more marginal lands for grazing or they begin to take up crop agriculture themselves, becoming agropastoralists vide Campbell et al.

In most cases, customary political and management systems are becoming weaker Niamir-Fuller, Livestock development projects are also driving change in pastoral lands by opening up remote pastures with the spread of borehole technology and fragmentation of rangelands by veterinary cordon fences; this is true in eastern Africa, but particularly in southern Africa.

Conflicts have resulted in changes in land tenure, with restricted access to traditional grazing lands as well as reduced mobility of pastoralists in insecure areas Mkutu, Pastoral success depends largely on tracking patchy resources through time.

In most traditional systems, this requires an opportunistic strategy of movement from daily and weekly changes in grazing orbits, to seasonal migrations over large landscapes. Many of the forces driving change in pastoral systems curtail the ability of pastoralists to move: Maasailand in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania has been subject to considerable vegetation changes since the beginning of the twentieth century.

Over the past century, the area has passed through successive stages of transformation as the result of the interaction between four distinct, and probably cyclical, processes of change: At the end of the nineteenth century, Maasai pastoralists had access to extensive grasslands Waller, During and following the great rinderpest epidemic of , cattle populations in eastern Africa succumbed rapidly: Famine and epidemics of endemic diseases such as smallpox reduced human populations to negligible numbers in Maasailand.

Wild ruminants also died in great numbers due to rinderpest, but gradually developed immunity. By , wildlife numbers rose, with the exception of wildebeest and buffalo, whose numbers were kept low from yearling mortality. These natural disasters disrupted the grazing patterns and reduced intensity. Dense woodlands and thickets established in the Mara Plains and northern Serengeti Dublin, because fires were less frequent, since population decreased with the famine and there were fewer people to light fires, so fuel loads grew with less grazing offtake.

This dense, woody vegetation was a habitat for tsetse flies, which fed on the abundant wildlife and prevented significant human re-settlement. Until the s, Maasai chose to settle and graze away from the Mara Plains Waller, At that time, the human population in the area was rapidly increasing and Maasai herdsmen used fire to improve grazing pastures Plate 2. Increased elephant densities further maintained the woodland decline in the Maasai Mara and Serengeti as the animals moved to the protected areas from the surrounding, more densely inhabited areas.

Between and , woodlands in the Mara decreased from about 30 percent to about 5 percent cover Lamprey and Waller, By the mids the wildebeest population had increased to about 1. Over the past 25 years, considerable changes in land cover and land use have taken place in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem and in the rangelands surrounding the protected core of the ecosystem Serneels, Said and Lambin , Land cover changes leading to a contraction of the rangelands were most pronounced in the Kenyan part of the ecosystem, surrounding the Maasai Mara.

About 45 ha of rangelands were converted to large-scale mechanized farming after Expansion of the wheat farms reached a maximum extent in , at 60 ha. By , about half of the wheat fields had been abandoned, mostly because the yields in the drier areas were too uncertain to make cultivation viable.

The abandoned areas once more became available to livestock and wildlife. Permanent settlements have spread from the north to the south in the last 50 years, with significant settlement areas now on the northern border of the Mara Reserve Lamprey and Waller, In the rangelands, most attempts at subsistence cultivation were abandoned after a few years, due to crop destruction by wildlife and highly variable yields linked with climate variability.

In the Tanzanian part of the ecosystem, land cover changes were less pronounced. No conversion for large-scale farming occurred; most land cover changes were either expansion of smallholder cultivation or natural succession in rangelands. Extensive areas of cultivated land subsistence to medium-scale agriculture were found in the unprotected lands, right up to the border with the protected areas west of Serengeti and southeast of NCA.

In the NCA and the Loliondo Game Controlled Area, about 2 percent of land cover changes were attributed to smallholder impact over the past 20 years. In the NCA, cultivation is regulated: In the Loliondo, no such restrictions are in place, but the area is very inaccessible, so the lack of opportunities to export the crops outside the area effectively controls the extent of cultivation.

The conversion of rangelands to agriculture has had a serious impact on the wildebeest population in the Kenyan part of the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem. The population declined drastically over the past twenty years and is currently fluctuating around an estimated population of 31 animals, which is about 25 percent of the population size at the end of the s.

Fluctuations in the wildebeest population in the Kenyan part of the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem, over the last decades, have been correlated strongly with the availability of forage during the dry and the wet seasons Serneels and Lambin, Expansion of large-scale mechanized wheat farming in Kenya since the early s has drastically reduced the wildebeest wet-season range, forcing the wildebeest population to use drier rangelands or to move to areas where competition with cattle is greater.

The expansion of the farming area has not influenced the size of the total cattle population in the Kenyan part of the study area, nor its spatial distribution. The much larger migratory wildebeest population of the Serengeti, in Tanzania, did not decline at the same time as the Kenyan population but is also regulated by food supply in the dry season Mduma, Sinclair and Hilborn , Around the Serengeti, in Tanzania, land use changes are much less widespread, occur at a lower rate and affect a much smaller area compared with the Kenyan part of the ecosystem.

Moreover, land use changes around the Serengeti have taken place away from the main migration routes of wildebeest. Savannah ecosystems are well represented in African protected area networks Davis, Heywood and Hamilton , In Tanzania, very large tracts of savannah have been set aside for conservation, partly because these rangelands support the most diverse assemblage of migrating ungulates on earth Sinclair, However, there are few resources to manage these conservation areas effectively and the rural populations surrounding them are among the poorest in the world.

Thus, conflict and complementarity between conservation and development have become major issues in Ngorongoro Homewood and Rodgers, , Mkomazi Rogers et al. Traditional forest restoration in Tanzania. The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices SAPs have become an important issue in the development-policy agenda for Sub-Saharan Africa, especially as a way to tackle land degradation, low agricultural productivity, and poverty.

However, the adoption rates of SAPs remain below expected levels. This paper analyzes the factors that facilitate or impede the probability and level of adoption of interrelated SAPs, using recent data from multiple plot-level observations in rural Ethiopia. Multivariate and ordered probit models are applied to the modeling of adoption decisions by farm households facing multiple SAPs which can be adopted in various combinations. The results show that there is a significant correlation between SAPs, suggesting that adoptions of SAPs are interrelated.

The analysis further shows that both the probability and the extent of adoption of SAPs are influenced by many factors: These results imply that policy makers and development practitioners should seek to strengthen local institutions and service providers, maintain or increase household asset bases, and establish and strengthen social protection schemes, to improve the adoption of SAPs.

Adoption of multiple sustainable agricultural practices in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Economics. Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Evidence from a Semi-arid Region of Ethiopia. In the wake of the resource constraints for external farm inputs, faced by farmers in developing countries, sustainable agriculture practices that rely on renewable local or farm resources presents desirable options for enhancing agriculture productivity.

Multinomial logit models are used to analyze the determinants of adoption of these practices. In addition, stochastic dominance analysis is used to compare the productivity impacts of compost with that of chemical fertilizer based on a six-year cross-sectional farm-level dataset.

While there is heterogeneity with regard to the factors that influence the choice to use either tillage or compost, results from a multinomial logit analysis underscored the importance of both plot and household characteristics on adoption decisions. In particular, we found that poverty and access to information, among other factors, impact the choice of sustainable farming practices significantly. We also found evidence that the impact of gender on technology adoption is technology-specific, while the significance of plot characteristics indicated that the decision to adopt certain technologies is location-specific.

Furthermore, the use of stochastic dominance analysis supported the contention that sustainable farming practices enhance productivity. They even proved to be superior to use of chemical fertilizers—justifying the need to investigate factors that influence adoption of these practices and to use this knowledge to formulate policies that encourage adoption.

Adoption of sustainable agriculture practices: Evidence from a semi-arid region of Ethiopia. Ethiopia Amhara region; District: This study measures the impact of fanya juu terraces on the net value of crop income in a high-rainfall area in the Ethiopian highlands using cross-sectional multiple plot observations. Using propensity score matching methods we find that the net value of crop income for plots with fanya juu terraces is lower than for plots without fanya juu terraces.

This finding makes it difficult to avoid concluding that while the technologies might reduce soil erosion and associated off-site effects, they do so at the expense of poor farmers in the Ethiopian highlands. New agricultural technologies need to be profitable to the farmer if they are to be adopted and sustained.

A Study from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ethiopia Tigray, Tanqua Abergelle. In Ethiopia, environmental degradation leads to a reduction of forest areas with economically important tree species like Boswellia papyrifera. In an attempt to reverse this development and assist natural rehabilitation, closing degraded forest from free grazing, fuel wood collection and other interference is practiced in Tigray.

Sustainability of this management will, among other things, depend on the resources' tangible benefits. This study aimed to determine and compare net benefits in Ethiopian Birr ETB per ha from the closed and open Boswellia papyrifera forestlands.

Production and household surveys were carried out in Jijike and Siye tabias of Abergelle woreda in northern Ethiopia. Data on costs and benefits of frankincense production were collected from firms trading the product. Net benefits from forestlands and croplands were determined using the Net Present Value criterion.

These values were by ETB and ETB higher than the sum of NPV from crop and crop residuals of a hectare of cropland in the study area of the two sites, respectively. Exporting frankincense could generate foreign exchange of Sensitivity analysis showed that managing degraded Boswellia papyrifera forestland as closed area always generates a higher NPV than the open one in case of changes in discount rate and prices of inputs and outputs.

Thus, managing the forest through closed areas is a competitive land-use alternative and provides higher net benefits than both open forestland and agricultural croplands. Economic analysis of closing degraded Boswellia papyrifera dry forest from human intervention: A study from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics. Economic Valuation of Land Restoration: Ethiopia Northern Highlands of Tigray.

Converting degraded grazing lands into exclosures is one option to restore soil nutrients and to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. We estimate the economic value of such a conversion and assess the perception of local communities concerning exclosures in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia.

Our research combines a soil and vegetation study with a socio-economic survey, and a financial analysis. Over a period of 30 years, sequestered carbon dioxide was Mg ha -1, total soil nitrogen increased by 7. Carbon revenues alone added up to only about 44 per cent of the net revenues of wheat production. This indicates that i carbon market revenues only, would not generate sufficient incentives to establish additional exclosures, and ii if all benefits are taken into account and financially rewarded, exclosures are competitive to alternatives land uses.

We also identified substantial opportunities to mobilize the local communities in efforts to establish exclosures, given that more than 75 per cent had a positive view on exclosures effectiveness to restore degraded soils and vegetation.

We conclude that a comprehensive analysis is necessary to consider the ecological as well as economic and social impacts of exclosures. Our findings are important information for local decision makers and may provide incentives for the establishment of further exclosures in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, thereby contributing to a sustainable local development process. Economic valuation of land restoration: The case of exclosures established on communal grazing lands in Tigray, Ethiopia.

Land Degradation and Development. An Assessment of the Economic Implications. However, land degradation in this area is considered to be one of the severest cases worldwide.

As a basis for the final cost-benefit analysis, the study conducted a land cover mapping which was complemented by a conservation structure mapping. The unit of analysis is a pixel of 30 m by 30 m, in line with the resolution of the Landsat imagery used for assessing land cover. In total the study area covers more than million pixels. Therefore, the study undertakes an estimation of future crop production for a 30 year time period by examining four different scenarios each modelling a different variation of conservation structure distribution and fertilizer application.

Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative. Ethiopia Amghara and Tigray regions. Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion presents a threat to food security and sustainability of agricultural production in many developing countries. Governments and development agencies have invested substantial resources to promote soil conservation practices as part of an effort to improve environmental conditions and reduce poverty.

However, there is very limited rigorous empirical work that has been done on the economics of soil conservation technology adoption. This paper investigates the impact of stone bunds on value of crop production per hectare in low and high rainfall areas of the Ethiopian highlands using cross-sectional data from more than households, with multiple plots per household. We have used modified random effects models, stochastic dominance analysis SDA and matching methods to ensure robustness.

The parametric regression and SDA estimates are based on matched observations obtained from nearest neighbor matching using propensity score estimates. This is important, because conventional regression and SDA estimates are obtained without ensuring that there actually exist comparable conserved and non-conserved plots on the distribution of covariates.

We find that the three methods tell a consistent story. Plots with stone bunds are more productive than those without such technologies in semi-arid areas but not in higher rainfall areas, apparently because the moisture conserving benefits of this technology are more beneficial in drier areas. This implies that the performance of stone bunds varies by agro-ecology type, suggesting the need for designing and implementing appropriate site-specific technologies. Estimating returns to soil conservation adoption in the northern Ethiopian highlands.

Three African Case Studies. The study developed and evaluated a methodological framework for conducting joint assessments with pastoralist range scouts. The framework has four components: The feedbacks between different components were used for information transfer.

The framework was applied to the three case studies using participatory methods. The scouts conducted rangeland assessments using ecological and anthropogenic indicators. Soils, and then vegetation, and finally livestock production were used as the main indicators for understanding rangeland degradation. In addition, pastoralists used key-plant species to assess landscape grazing suitability and soils to assess landscape-grazing potential. The latter is critical for evaluating potential stocking densities that each landscape could support during the wet or dry grazing seasons.

For anthropogenic indicators herders used milk yield, body hair condition, weight gain and mating frequency to assess livestock production performances. Pastoralist scouts assessed rangeland degradation and trends using historical knowledge of the landscapes. The findings confirmed comparable knowledge systems among the three pastoral communities. The methods can be applied across regions where pastoralism still dominates the rural economy. The system of indigenous rangeland assessments and monitoring could rapidly provide information needed by policy makers.

Harnessing pastoralists' indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: Three African case studies. A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections. This paper presents a bio-economic model of Andit Tid, a severely degraded crop-livestock farming system with high population density and good market access in the highlands of Ethiopia.

Land degradation, population growth, stagnant technology, and drought threaten food security in the area. Drought or weather risk appears to have increased in recent years. The bio-economic model is used to analyse the combined effects of land degradation, population growth, market imperfections and increased risk of drought on household production, welfare and food security. We find that the indirect effects of drought on household welfare through the impact on crop and livestock prices are larger than the direct production effects of drought.

Provision and adoption of credit for fertiliser, although risky in itself, may lead to increased grain production and improved household welfare and food security.

Provision of credit may have a negative effect on conservation incentives but this effect may be mitigated by linking a conservation requirement to the provision of credit for fertiliser. Land degradation, drought and food security in a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands: The last few years have witnessed a renewed interest in the export of live animals and meat from Kenya and Ethiopia.

In both cases, the private sector has taken the lead in initiating or advocating for the revival of the export business, prompting the respective governments to pay attention to the potentials of livestock trade. In Kenya, this move was enhanced by the formation of a new Ministry for Livestock and Fisheries.

This has led to the re-operationalization of the Kenya Meat Commission, new plans to set up satellite abattoirs in strategic locations along the northern corridor, innovative approaches to improve dilapidated market infrastructure and a continued interest in addressing sanitary requirements related to livestock and meat trade.

Kenya has also incorporated a livestock marketing policy in the national livestock policy document still in draft. Prior to this, interested groups such as the Kenya Livestock Marketing Council, initially supported by Arid Land Resource Management Project, had set up various district- based livestock marketing groups and played a major role in raising awareness and establishing linkages between producers and potential importers.

During the last ten years in Ethiopia, the private sector has been active in setting up export abattoirs and also in the exporting of live animals. Bilateral programs specifically designed to address sanitary issues were also on the fore. Many of the NGOs operate at the local level with a few exceptions that operate at the national level. Considering the size of the human population that depends on livestock production in both countries, the development of domestic and export markets is critical to alleviating poverty, raising revenues, and continuing the trend towards more market-orientation.

In realization of this potential, both governments are taking some encouraging measures towards promoting the marketing of livestock, specifically from pastoral areas. However, livestock and meat marketing, especially exports, is a complex process.

The subsistence production systems in Ethiopia and Kenya cannot compete with commercial producers in Brazil or Australia. International trade barriers SPS, tariff and non-tariff impose huge limitations on both countries. Export marketing and promotional strategies in destination countries are almost non-existent.

There is no economy of scale to offset costs. In short, the livestock and meat marketing systems are not as efficient nor as streamlined as those of their competitors. Yet, these problems are not insurmountable in the long-term. Some require substantial investments, for example, in animal health and SPS systems, infrastructure and processing facilities.

Others may require a combination of institutional and attitudinal changes such as shifting the mode of production to meet what the market demands.

Competing in the international market entails acquiring and practicing savvy marketing strategies along with availing the right product on time. Obviously, a public and private sector partnership is crucial to achieving long-term objectives. More importantly, an appropriate policy framework is the pre- requisite for providing an enabling environment for all actors.

This paper will look into some policy and operational issues. Livestock marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A review of policies and practice. Feinstein International Centre, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia is a country of an agrarian economy characterized by high population growth, huge dependence on erratic rainfall, low agricultural productivity, structural bottlenecks and land-lockedness. The sector is characterized by low productivity partly due to low investment level in the sector particularly in smallholder farmers backward farming technologies, low farm level capacity, land degradation and recurrent drought The last few years the performance of the sector has notably improved.

Ethiopia is the richest country in the livestock inventories in Africa with the total of about 41 million heads of cattle, 25 million heads of sheep 23 million of goats 41million of chicken, 5. The richness of the country is both in terms of large number and diversity of livestock population. The productivity problems are linked to availability and quality of feeding resources, animal breeds and type of production systems.

In addition, the fact that there is a lack of proper appreciation for the sector in the including adequate account for its role and significance in the economy means negligence in terms of proper support to raise the productivity and role of this sector. Accurate livestock database disaggregated by the lowland and highland farming systems is lacking leading to a failure to properly inform policy makers to design appropriate national level livestock development strategies and policies1. One other reason is probably that policy makers have viewed livestock mainly in terms of their contributions to agricultural activities as traction power and hence their contribution to the livelihoods of the poor has been neglected.

Pastoral areas in Ethiopia, which cover about 0. These areas support about 9. Although pastoralism plays significant role in the Ethiopian economy, this sector with huge economic, social and environmental roles and benefits has been largely marginalized by the development policies and strategies in the past. The vast rangeland is denied the necessary economic and social infrastructure and services as the meager development effects attained in the in the country could not be regionally balanced taking account of the needs in the low land pastoral areas.

Development interventions, if they took place remained to be extractive simply by facilitating the market off-take of the livestock resource without being people and pastoral system based development intervention. Such lack of overall Pastoralism development strategies and policies emanate from the under valuation of the total economic benefits of pastoralism.

SOS Sahel Ethiopia, It's total economic value and development challenges. A Contingent Valuation Analysis. Frankincense from Boswellia papyrifera forest is a traded commodity used in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and chemical industries. Ethiopia is an important producer of frankincense, but the resource is under continuous degradation and requires conservation.

We applied a contingent valuation to assess rural households' willingness to pay and willingness to contribute labor for BPF conservation. Next to the bid, willingness to pay is influenced most by income, education, and willingness to contribute labor by family labor and gender of the household head.

This suggests that using per capita daily income rather than market wage rates could result in convergence in response asymmetry of labor and cash payment vehicles. The potential local demand for conservation of BPF could be mobilized effectively with complementary policy interventions aimed at sustainable use and poverty reduction.

Rural households' demand for frankincense forest conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia: A contingent valuation analysis. Ethiopia Amhara and Tigray regions. This article uses data from household- and plot-level surveys conducted in the highlands of the Tigray and Amhara regions of Ethiopia. We examine the contribution of sustainable land management SLM practices to net value of agricultural production in areas with low vs. A combination of parametric and non-parametric estimation techniques is used to check result robustness.

The results are found to be insensitive to hidden bias. Our findings imply a need for careful agro-ecological targeting when developing, promoting, and scaling up SLM practices. The economics of sustainable land management practices in the Ethiopian Highlands. Millions of people throughout the world make extensive use of goods and service of forest resources. Forest goods are either timber or non-timber.

Non-timber forest products NTFPs are harvested for both subsistence and commercial use and play a key role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people. It has received increased policy and research attention due to its perceived potential to meet sustainable rural development and tropical forest conservation. In Ethiopia studies in different parts of the country have shown that many rural households depend on NTFPs for subsistence and cash income. Although wealth of literature are building on NTFPs of Ethiopia, still studies are far less than sufficient to cover the wide ecological and forest types found in the country.

One of the ecological regions relatively less covered is the Bale region characterized by high diversity of plant and animal species, agro ecology and forest formations. This study, therefore, was conducted in the Harana Bulluk district of Bale Zone, with the main objective of assessing and analyzing the contribution of NTFPs to rural livelihood and to identify factors influencing household level of engagement in the business. Five villages were selected based on their proximity gradient from the forest.

Formal survey was carried out on a total of households HHs selected using stratified random sampling. The contribution of NTFPs varied with proximity and wealth status of households.

Households close to the forest generate more income than do those at a distant location. The relative contribution of NTFP to household income of the poor was This variation shows that in relative terms the poor rely more on NTFPs than the medium or rich, however, in absolute terms wealthy households extract greater income than poor and medium.

Major constraints for improved NTFPs production were i shortage of labour, ii poor knowledge of managing and extracting NTFPs, iii poor market link, and iv low market prices. Currently, the study area forest is experiencing immense pressure, which is partly due to its nearness to open access condition.

So to reverse this situation forestland title tenure should clearly be defined. The study has shown that NTFPs play a significant role in improving the livelihood of the people while conserving a forest. The role of non timber forest products to rural livelihoods and forest conservation: Alentejo is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Portugal and it has. Alqueva Multipurpose Project Brochure. A spatial value transfer analysis was performed to generate baseline estimates of the value of ecosystem services in the coastal zone of Catalonia, Spain.

The study used the best available conceptual frameworks, data sources, and analytical techniques to generate non-market monetary value estimates that can be used to identify scarce ecosystem services among competing coastal uses. The approach focused on natural and seminatural, terrestrial and marine systems, which provide essential services that are not considered in current economic markets.

In a spatially explicit manner, the approach illustrates the contribution made by natural environmental systems to the wellbeing of communities in the coastal zone of Catalonia. It is hoped that this study will highlight the need to consider these coastal systems in future management strategies to ensure their proper maintenance and conservation.

An assessment of the non-market values of ecosystem services provided by the Catalan Coastal Zone, Spain. Ocean and Coastal Management. Assessing the Costs of Land Degradation: Spain Puentes catchment, southeastern Spain. Whereas many studies point out the economic benefits of controlling land degradation through sustainable land management SLM approaches, there is often a lack of local adoption of SLM techniques.

Analysis of the local impacts and costs of land degradation is critical for understanding farmers' responses to land degradation. The objective of this paper is to analyse the local costs of land degradation in the Puentes catchment in southeast Spain. This catchment has been identified as particularly vulnerable to erosion, yet farmers show a general lack of interest in applying erosion control techniques.

The paper subsequently analyses land degradation processes in the Puentes catchment, the income derived from agriculture and several other ecosystem services, and the local costs of land degradation.

Erosion is widespread in the catchment, comprising sheet and rill erosion as well as gulley erosion.

Relatively high erosion rates are encountered in cropland. Dryland agriculture, hunting and herding provide additional income.

Except on the steepest slopes, these costs are relatively low for the farmers, which explains the limited application of erosion control techniques in the catchment. Assessing the costs of land degradation: Spain Cadiz and Tunisia Ain Snoussi. Two management scenarios are simulated: The aim of the paper is to compare the present value of income changes from the sustainable and unsustainable management scenarios in Cadiz Spain and Ain Snoussi Tunisia , considering the multiple commercial uses and forest amenities enjoyed by private owners only in Cadiz of cork oak forests.

The results show that the sustainable cork oak forest management in Ain Snoussi generates a higher present value of aggregated labour and capital incomes and leads to a capital loss when compared to the current cork oak depletion scenario.

In addition, the sustainable scenario in Ain Snoussi would reduce the total self-employed income for households that depend on open-access grazing resources. In Cadiz, the cork oak forest sustainable management scenario leads to a significant capital loss for private forest owners given current cork prices and government aid to forest natural regeneration. Cork oak forest management in Spain and Tunisia: Two case studies of conflicts between sustainability and private income.

Spain Almeria, South Spain. In order to ensure customer satisfaction and safety, Michelin evaluates the. Protecting Ecosystems while Testing Tires.

Public Preferences for Landscape Features: Carmen Gonzalez-Roa and J. Spain mountain area of the Alpujarras. Provision of landscape amenities produced by farmers, in addition to their economic function of producing food and fibre, has contributed to a reassessment of the role of agriculture in society.

In this paper, we examine whether agricultural landscape provision really responds to a social demand as is argued by those in favour of multifunctionality. Thus, the aim of the present work is two-fold. First, we evaluate rural landscape preferences of citizens from a range of choices in the mountain area of the Alpujarras south-eastern Spain , and second, we estimate their willingness to pay WTP to enjoy each of the landscape characteristics existing in the area.

For the empirical analysis, based on a survey of public preferences due to the good public characteristics of landscape amenities, we applied two stated preference methods: Three landscape attributes were considered for this analysis: Several levels were also considered for each attribute: Maintaining local agricultural activities, preventing future migration from agricultural lands, recovering abandoned fields, and including elements of rural landscape observation and appreciation of existing recreational programmes for rural tourism in the area, were among the strategies to take full advantage of this aesthetic landscape potential, and to foster sustainable development of the region.

Public preferences for landscape features: The case of agricultural landscape in mountainous Mediterranean areas. Maren Wiese Location s: Building on the research taking place in the Cantabrian Mountain Range on the physiogeographic characteristics and environmental problems combined with the knowledge about our identified stakeholders, the different interests in land use and land management and the resulting conflicts, the main goal of our stakeholder engagement plan is the development of a future-orientated development of the entire region in agreement, interaction and collaboration of the individual stakeholders taking the policies of sustainability, nature conservation and green development into account.

An economic valuation of a large-scale rangeland restoration project through project through the Hima system in Jordan. Vanja Westerberg and Moe Myint Location s: Jordanian rangelands are a source of valued livestock produce, carbon storage, biodiversity and medicinal plants. They also serve as watersheds that receive rainfall, yield surface water, and replenish the groundwater throughout the region to the east and south of the western Jordan highlands.

Appropriate land management can protect and maximize these services for society. With the acceleration of desertification, land degradation and drought during the twenty-first century in the arid and semi-arid regions of Jordan, these services are becoming jeopardized. It is therefore increasingly urgent to define and pursue viable strategies to reverse this trend.

To inform the debate surrounding this approach, this paper presents an ex-ante Cost Benefit Analysis of large-scale rangeland rehabilitation through the Hima system within the Zarqa River Basin drawing on experience from a pilot initiative. The ecosystem services that arise from rangeland rehabilitation are valued using a combination of stated preference, avoided costs, replacement cost and market prices approaches.

The economic analysis builds on high-resolution remote sensing, GIS and biophysical Soil and Water Assessment Tools elaborated to rigorously calibrate the impact of land use changes on forage availability, ground water infiltration, carbon sequestration and sediment stabilisation. Given this encouraging result, we discuss the different policy instruments that may be used to incentivize the rehabilitation of rangelands in Jordan.

An economic valuation of a large-scale rangeland restoration project through in Jordan. An economic valuation of agroforestry and land restoration in the Kelka Forest, Mali: Assessing the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of land degradation.

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