Dog's Digestive System

Reptile Classification

Amphibians & Reptiles
Archived from the original on 30 January This section needs additional citations for verification. Most species of snakes lay eggs which they abandon shortly after laying. Prey not thoroughly defrosted and warmed. They are on the move, seeking areas for basking and shedding, foraging and digestion, mate searching, suitable nesting or birthing habitat, and overwintering.

Bearded Dragon Diets and Food Items Explained

Bearded Dragon Food

Reptiles are quiet and undemanding but are very fun to watch. Many are quite small, so need very little space and are easy to feed. They are also clean, most with no odor at all, making them easy to care for. Reptiles and Amphibians as Pets Reptiles and amphibians make ideal pets in many ways. Both types of herptiles are very quiet and have virtually no odor. The space needed to house can be an area smaller than a flower pot or as large as a room, depending on the pet.

Terrariums decorated with driftwood, plants, mosses, and rocks, will bring a also bring a bit of nature into your home and can make a great showpiece in the family or living room. You can find a suitable reptile or amphibian for a pet whether you live in a dorm room, an apartment, or in a house.

Reptiles and amphibians are easy to take care of with a minimum amount of cleaning. You can even miss a feeding occasionally and not worry about it. In nature, herptiles don't get to eat constantly. They have to be much more active in collecting their food in the wild, than they do in captivity.

Becoming obese can actually be a problem if they are fed daily. About Reptile Cages The cage or enclosure to house your pet will be determined by the size of the reptile and its environmental needs. Housing for large reptiles can be accomplished with various types of cages.

For smaller pets there are many different types of terrariums that can be set up. The shape of the cage too, must suit the needs of the pet that you will put in it. For example, a tall narrow cage with a climbing branch is needed for an arboreal or tree dwelling animal, such as a chameleon. Whereas a low, wide cage is needed for a roving terrestrial or ground dwelling animal, such as a tortoise.

Many commercially available reptile cages are pre-made glass terrariums or you can simply get an aquarium and a screen cover. Wooden cages with glass fronts are sometimes available as well, or they can be built. When the weather permits, some reptiles can simply be housed in a backyard enclosure or a pond area. Some people will even create elaborate indoor setups for their pet reptile, like an indoor atrium. Types of Terrariums The types of reptile cages and habitats are limited only to your imagination and being suitable for the type of reptile you have.

There are four basic habitats for herptiles, which include: Aquatic Terrarium Some animals that are suited to an aquatic terrarium are turtles, frogs, newts, rubber eels, water snakes, mudpuppies, waterdogs and salamanders.

The aquatic terrarium is like an aquarium. You need water, a submersible heater, usually gravel is spread on the bottom, and a filter is nice to make maintenance less work.

It differs slightly from an aquarium by the decor you use, the lid or covering used on the top, and the amount of water needed generally 4 to 6 inches for the animal that will live there. First you will need a vented or wire screen top. This allows air to circulate through the terrarium as well as giving you a place set a basking lamp. Next a basking area is usually needed. It can either be a floating type such as an artificial lily pad or a slab of bark, or it can be a built up area of rocks and moss.

Then you will want a background. This is important not only to provide a naturally looking setting, but to help your pet feel secure and comfortable. Semi-Aquatic Terrarium Some animals that are suited to the semi-aquatic terrarium are most of the various salamanders, frogs, and newts.

Also crocodile lizards, caimans, basilisks, and several turtle types. A semi-aquatic terrarium is a combination of water and land. The land and water areas can be divided with a piece of glass attached and sealed with silicon, or a removable container can be used for the water area. The water area can be set up like the aquatic terrarium with a heater, gravel and filter. The land area can be filled with substrates such as: A layer of charcoal covered with filter floss placed under the substrate helps keep it fresh.

Decorate the terrarium with driftwood, moss, rocks and plants. Plants can be added to the land area by planting them directly into the substrate or by submersing pots into the substrate. Pick plants whose size fits the animal and terrarium size; for example, ferns are great for tree frogs while pray plants are good for moderate sized lizards. Depending on the inhabitant you may need to provide a heat source that provides a basking area.

Make sure there is a thermal gradient to the enclosure, with the basking source at one end while the other end is cooler. Woodland Terrarium The woodland terrarium can house various frogs including red-eyed tree frogs, barking tree frogs, green tree frogs and true frogs; also various salamanders, day geckos, anoles, skinks, and snakes.

The woodland terrarium is set up just like the semi-aquatic terrarium only without the large water area. Simply provide a water bowl. This terrarium is all substrate with plants, driftwood, moss and rocks.

Depending on the type of animal you will house here, substrates can be: The pets you wish to keep in it will also determine if it should be planted, and how heavily it should be planted; whether you will have more branches for tree climbers or more rocks for ground dwellers.

Plants such as philodendrons, syngoniums, fittonias, and other greenhouse varieties can work well in these terrariums. Various "air plants" such as tillandsia work great, too. They are real low maintenance, they can be attached to driftwood and will do well just being misted a couple of times a week.

You may need to provide a heat source, depending on the inhabitant, but make sure there is a thermal gradient to the enclosure, generally one end that is warmer while cooler on the other end.

This allows your reptile to thermoregulate as it needs to. Full-spectrum lighting is also important for some of the woodland types. Desert Terrarium Some pets that will do very well in the desert terrarium are: A desert terrarium is just what it's name implies, an arid or semi-arid environment. Good substrates for this terrarium includes reptile bark, terrarium carpet or sand. Various other classes of compounds are digested by hydrolytic enzymes specific for them.

Not all of these enzymes occur in every organism; for example, few animals possess cellulase cellulose-digesting enzyme , despite the fact that cellulose constitutes much of the total bulk of the food ingested by plant-eating animals. Some nonetheless benefit from the cellulose in their diet because their digestive tracts contain microorganisms known as symbionts capable of digesting cellulose. So far, emphasis has been placed on the role of digestion in converting large complex molecules into smaller simpler ones that can move across membranes, which thus permits absorption of food into cells.

The same processes occur when substances must be moved from cell to cell within a multicellular organism. Thus, green plants, which do not have to digest incoming nutrients, digest stored material, such as starch, before it can be transported from storage organs tubers, bulbs, corms to points of utilization, such as growing buds.

Animals that ingest bulk food unavoidably take in some matter that they are incapable of using. In the case of unicellular organisms that form food vacuoles, the vacuoles eventually fuse with the cell membrane and then rupture, releasing indigestible wastes to the outside.

Substances that cannot be digested, such as cellulose, pass into the colon, or large intestine. There water and ions such as sodium and chloride are reabsorbed, and the remaining solid material is held until it is expelled through the anus.

Fecal constituents in species with an alimentary canal also include cast-off effete damaged or worn-out cells from the living mucous membrane and, in higher animals, bacteria that exist in the intestine in a symbiotic relationship. In the higher animals, the life span of a cell from the mucosal epithelium is four to eight days, and the life span of the specialized cells, such as the acid-secreting parietal cells located in the stomach, is one to three years.

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Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Human digestive system , the system used in the human body for the process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract, or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the bloodstream. Drugs may act on the digestive system either by affecting the actions of the involuntary muscle motility and thus altering movement or by altering the secretion of digestive juices or gastric emptying.

Some examples of major groups of digestive drugs include antidiarrheal…. When an alcoholic beverage is swallowed, it is diluted by gastric juices in the stomach. A small portion of the alcohol is diffused into the bloodstream directly from the stomach wall, but most passes through the pyloric junction….

Digestion in bats is unusually rapid. They chew and fragment their food exceptionally thoroughly and thus expose a large surface area of it to digestive action. They may begin to defecate 30 to 60 minutes after beginning to feed and thereby…. More About Digestion 20 references found in Britannica articles animal In animal: Metabolism studies by Bernard In Claude Bernard: Research on the pancreas and the liver. Pavlov In Ivan Petrovich Pavlov: Digestion and water conservation dogs In dog: Digestive system nutrients In feed: Nutrition in bacteria zebras In zebra View More.

Help us improve this article! Giving a large dose of calcium all at once is not the same as giving a smaller amount with every second feeding. It's generally agreed across the vertebrate world, that an inclusion ratio of 2: This is a common ratio measured in healthy bone analysis of most vertebrates including humans.

To err to the high side with calcium is generally much easier to metabolize than a diet that has less than a 2: Feed a Silkworm times week to provide a balanced diet. More Calcium and Hydration requirements information continued below on this page Bubba having her lunch of 28 worms: When temperatures are lower then 7 C, or higher than 25 C we may elect to wait to ship until temperatures return the the Safe-Zone. If you still want your order shipped using a slower service 2 or more days there is NO Live Delivery Guarantee - your are assuming the risk of DOA grubs and we assume no liability whatsoever for any dead insects.

Wed, Apr 29, at Almost no DOA, lasted, without mysteriously dying off, for weeks and any that did were likely due to me not knowing how to keep them alive properly - yet! And my Beardie and Geckos loved them! I need another shipment. Really, compared to the big box pet stores, and even the specialty ones I tried here in Toronto, The Worm Lady is far superior.

I have sent the funds by email. Annie relaxing with princess Cleopatra Please note that your order will ship Canada Post Overnight Next-Day only when temperatures are forecast to stay around 44 F 7 C for a minimum of 2 consecutive days We compost all our organic waste for use in our organic vegetable garden and flower beds.

We also raise our Live Feeders on organic live foods. This is your assurance that you are getting the healthiest and the best quality live feeders for your pets - and our small contribution in the preservation of our local eco-system.

Sunday July 20, - 9: Absolute Essentials for healthy herps When you order your live feeders from me I always do my absolute best to ensure an over-count, prompt next-day delivery - whenever possible, proper and personal attention to each order, and well-fed, healthy live feeders to you - my customers. Excellent nutrition and responsible husbandry must be combined to ensure the health of your reptiles. You can be feeding the most perfectly balanced diet in existence, but without the optimum temperature gradient, that 'perfect diet' is not able to be properly digested.

Reptiles are cold blooded animals so they require heat in order to digest their foods. If this temperature requirement is not met the food will simply rot in their gut and not be digested, resulting in elevated uric acid levels, and an acidic blood pH level causing detrimental damage to your reptile.

Digestion is not only impaired by improper heat requirements, but lack of hydration can also have adverse effects on digestion as well. Water consumption is often overlooked when thinking about digestion, but without proper amounts of water intake the process of digestion can be halted , thus, causing serious damage to your reptiles.

If you have a picky eater who will not eat a good variety of live feeders for a properly balanced diet you should try some of the Repashy Superfoods Meal Replacement products. These were scientifically formulated to return your pet to optimum health, and keep him healthy for the long term too!

Organically Raised Live Feeders: Our beardies love being out and about so we take them with us everywhere we go The order did arrive the next day and was in perfect condition. I would like another Phoenix worms and 20 silkworms.

Saturday August 2, - Anyway - getting back to hydration: An example of water intake is through the ingestion of insects. Insects alone can provide a large amount of water to aid in the hydration of your reptile. In their natural habitat the early morning dew that is apparent in many arid lands is yet another method of water consumption, and for the herbivores, they will get much of their hydration from consuming plant material. As you can see, besides the obvious rain and access to running water there are many other means in which a reptile can get the moisture it requires.

Reptiles in their natural habitat have learned to adapt to natural ways of maintaining proper hydration. However, when housed in captivity the reptiles are not able to resort to most of the methods listed above since they are at the mercy of their keeper to provide them with the proper environment.

Fast forward to the dry terrarium with glass sides, a screen top and a basking light … Even a desert adapted reptile can quickly become dehydrated and die in an enclosure like this.

In such a situation it's up to the keeper to provide the moisture to the reptiles, and often, it is in an 'unnatural form' via misting, soaking, a water bowl or a combination of these three methods.

The point is that a dehydrated reptile cannot assimilate the best of meals so without the proper hydration the absorption of nutrition really suffers. This is why Live Foods are so important as they provide much needed hydration. Now that we understand that proper heat and hydration is an important part of the key to success I can now begin expounding on the importance of nutrition. The first goal on the way to great health is to attain and maintain a blood pH in the alkaline range of 6.

Without it, the body becomes acidic due to the gradual depletion of its mineral reserves and all types of health stresses can occur, both in reptiles and in humans too!.

Most reptile keepers are familiar with Vitamin D in regards to calcium powder, which in most cases is used to 'dust' the insects, coating them with a fine white powder.

It can also be used in other ways, such as being mixed into a salad for herbivores, sprinkled on a pellet diet, or in the case of mixed right into the powdered diet. Since reptiles are viewed more as a specialty pet little research has been done in regards to their nutritional requirements.

The product degradation is also a major concern and factor to consider. There are various views on what vitamins should be mixed with a calcium supplement and how the mixture of vitamins can be effected by the minerals.

Although there are many views on this subject very little research has been done mainly due to the fact that there is just not a competitive market for their foods like there is with dogs and cats. To most people the keeping of Reptiles is not mainstream, which means that there is little monetary motivation to understanding their unique nutritional requirements.

Balance is a major key. Giving a large dose of calcium all at once is not the same as giving a smaller amount with each feeding. The importance of calcium in reptile nutrition is of a high concern. History shows us that a calcium deficiency is a common problem, especially when the reptiles are pressured into longer than natural breeding seasons, resulting in metabolic bone disease. As noted above, this situation causes unnatural stress on female reptiles to produce more eggs, thus requiring more calcium.

Remember, however, that it is not just a lack of calcium that creates this problem, but a complex relationship between many vitamins and minerals.

Again, as I always tell all of my customers, a good variety of nutritious live foods is essential in the rearing of healthy reptiles in captivity.

This will ensure a good mix of micro and macro nutrients with a good variety of minerals and vitamins in ' whole foods' form, not from synthesized processes, which never can equal what nature provides in organic 'live foods'. Provide your pets a balanced Live Foods diet and they will thank you for it! If I don't have what you want, I'll always do my best to help you find it!!!

My rescued leopard gecko feasting on a Hornworm from ' The Worm Lady'. He was giving me a hard time! See his feet are orange! He was kept on 'calci-sand' - and sadly was bedded on it for 3 sheds! He wouldn't eat for nothing! Sadly the store I was buying worms off, who actually got their worm supply from Annie, was closing down and they gave me a card to get a hold of her.

What Is a Reptile?