Alcoholic Beverages: Beers, Wines, Spirits, Liqueurs

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Chemistry and crystal structure together define a mineral. Healthcare costs are rising faster than inflation. Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly. The good news is that exercise may increase bone density or at least slow the rate of decrease in both men and women. Find tips for proper foot care to help prevent serious complications.

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Aerobic Exercise

How much aerobic exercise do you need to gain the benefits? There are two physical activity guidelines in the Unites States. That is, you can modify it to fit into your daily routine and activities of daily living.

The recommendation is that all adults should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most, if not all days of the week. The key words are "accumulate" and "moderate-intensity. Moderate intensity is equivalent to feeling "warm and slightly out of breath" when you do it. Recently there has been some controversy about the effectiveness of this guideline and its benefits.

At the moment the recommendation stands, but we may hear more about it in the not-too-distant future. The second recommendation is from the American College of Sports Medicine. The ACSM recommends minutes of continuous aerobic activity biking, walking, jogging, dancing, swimming, etc.

This is a more formal, "workout" recommendation, although you can also accumulate the more intense workout in bouts of minutes throughout the day if you like.

Follow this recommendation and your fitness and your health will improve. Which one you choose is a personal choice. They are not intended to compete with each other but rather to provide options and maybe even complement each other. For instance, the Surgeon General's recommendation may be more practical for individuals who are unwilling, or unable, to adopt the more formal ACSM recommendation.

Of course, there's no downside to working out regularly with aerobic exercise and also becoming more physically active as per the Surgeon General take more stairs, mow the lawn by hand, park far away from the store and walk , so combining them might be a good decision. How do I get started on an aerobic exercise program? My suggestion for getting started is almost always the same.

Keep it simple, keep it practical, keep it convenient, keep it realistic, keep it specific, and don't try to make up for years of inactivity all at once. Select any activity and amount of time where the probability of sticking with it is high.

You may not love walking, but if you can do it right outside your door, and it requires no special equipment, and you already know how to do it you've been walking your entire life! What I mean by "be specific" pertains to setting exercise plans.

Planning is helpful for behavior change, and I suggest that you set goals each week. I suggest writing down what day s of the week you'll exercise, what time of day, minutes of activity, location, and the activity that you'll do.

Be as specific and realistic as possible, and remember that it's not how much you do when you get started but that you simply get started getting started is usually the hardest part. Another plan I like is the five-minute out, five-minute back plan. Just like it sounds, you walk for five minutes from your starting point, turn around, and walk back. It's simple and doable for almost everyone. It's a change in your activity behavior even though it's not all that much, and you can increase as you get more used to it.

From five minutes you could go to seven and a half out, seven and a half back, a total of 15 minutes just like that. And you can keep your eye on 15 out, 15 back, and there you go meeting the Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes. If you're feeling ambitious, you can add some abdominal crunches and push-ups once you get back. For push-ups, if you can't do a standard one on the floor, modify them by leaning against a wall, leaning against a table, or on your knees on the floor.

The lower you go the harder they are. Start with two to three sets of crunches and push-ups, repetitions, three to four days a week. As they get easier, you can increase the intensity of crunches by going slower or putting your legs in the air with your knees bent.

As push-ups get easier, you can go to the next lower level for example, from wall to table to on your knees on the floor. I suggest keeping records of your weekly progress by writing down what happens, or at least checking off that you followed through, and then setting your weekly plan every week for at least three months.

Then at three months, you can evaluate your progress and see if any changes need to be made. How will you know if you're ready to stop setting weekly goals each week? Ask yourself if you believe you will be exercising regularly in six months. If the answer is "I'm not sure," or "no," then you ought to continue to set weekly goals. If you are confident that you can maintain the behavior and will be exercising in six months, then you may not need to set weekly goals, but at the first sign of slipping, you ought to go back to it.

How do I calculate my target heart rate during aerobic exercise? Your heart rate rises during aerobic exercise. It can rise from 70 beats per minutes bpm at rest to as high as bpm or even higher during exercise, depending on the intensity of the exercise, your fitness level, your age, and other factors. Whether you're training is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by the intensity of your workout, and monitoring the intensity is the key to know which one you're doing.

For many individuals, simply monitoring how the body feels while exercising is enough to determine the proper aerobic intensity. I recommend "warm and slightly out of breath" as the cue for aerobic activity; that is if you feel warm and slightly out of breath while you're exercising, then that's good enough.

On the other hand, some people like to know with more precision how their body is doing during exercise. If that's the case for you, then taking your heart rate during exercise and using a target heart rate training zone might be just the ticket. I recommend the heart-rate reserve method for calculating a target heart rate.

If you plug in other values, you can get other ranges. There's been some recent research to suggest a new way of estimating maximum heart rate. The formula is the following:. An example if you're 26 years old is: You'd then take and plug it in as usual to the formula above. This new formula makes a slightly bigger difference as you get older. What are some aerobic training workouts and routines? There are a number of ways to approach aerobic training. I'll use walking as an example of an aerobic activity and go through some of the training methods.

You can plug in any other aerobic activity if you prefer, such as running. The simplest method of starting is just that, simple. Select the number of minutes you'd like to walk for let's say 20 minutes for your first walk and head out the door or step on the treadmill and go for it.

Remember that to make it aerobic you want to walk at a pace that leaves you feeling "warm and slightly out of breath" and one that you can sustain for the time that you planned. In this case, set your sights on completing 20 minutes and pace yourself to do it. If you start too quickly, then you may poop out too soon. It's not important how fast you do it; it's just important that you attempt to complete the time.

If you find 20 minutes is too ambitious, then start with less. Again, the most important thing is to get started. You can always add more later on. As discussed above, I like the simplicity of the five-minute out, five-minute back aerobic training plan.

And like I said, you can increase gradually to 15 minutes out, 15 minutes back. It's aerobic and you'll get a training effect as long as you feel warm and slightly out of breath when you do it. Interval training is more intense than simple aerobic training. It's a very effective way to increase your fitness level remember stroke volume and mitochondria activity! The idea to intervals is to set up work to active-rest ratios work: The work interval of the ratio is a speed that is faster than what you usually do, and the active-rest interval is your usual speed.

To do it, you start at your usual speed for five to eight minutes, then increase the speed to the work interval for one to three minutes, then slow down to your usual speed for a few minutes to catch your breath this is the active-rest interval , and then you repeat the cycling for the duration of your workout. Try the following if you currently walk for 30 minutes at 3. Over the course of weeks and months, you increase the work interval and decrease the active-rest.

Over the course of weeks and months you increase the work interval and decrease the active-rest. As you can see, the ratio changed from 1: The next step would be to do all four minutes at 3. Spin class is interval training. It's done at gyms on special spin cycles with an instructor who barks out orders to increase the intensity and then slow down to catch your breath.

It's addictive, and people who do it regularly swear by it. You should already be doing some aerobic exercise and be reasonably conditioned before you try it, but I recommend it if you're looking for one of the toughest workouts around. You can get more specific with your aerobic interval training and use heart rate since it's an excellent indication of how hard you are working.

Let's use jogging on a treadmill as the aerobic activity in this example. Start with a 1: That's a good starting point, and as you increase the work intervals and decrease the active-rest ratios like in the examples above, you'll notice that your conditioning improves so that your heart rate will be lower at the higher speeds. It's a good idea to plan your intervals in advance. Write them down so that you don't have to think about it while you're working out. I also suggest intervals no more than one to two times per week because they are tough workouts and you will need some time to recover.

It's okay to do aerobic activity on days in between your intervals, but give your body a chance to recover from the intervals before doing them again. So, if you're walking for 20 minutes then the next increase ought to be two minutes for the following week. The bottom line though is to listen to your body. Learn how to listen to your body and everything should be OK. What aerobic equipment is involved? Rowers, treadmills, bikes, and cross-country skiers are all effective if you use them.

There is some suggestion that some individuals are more inclined to exercise at home with equipment than at the gym or a class. The activity you choose is a personal choice and it varies for everyone, and so you need to experiment until you find what works best for you. Some individuals prefer to go to the gym while others are perfectly content to work out at home on their own equipment in front of their TV. TV can make the time pass quickly, and so can your favorite movie, music, scholarly courses taught by professors, or books on tape see resources for online vendors.

Finding something that will distract you might just make that minute workout bearable, and believe it or not you might even look forward to it! After all, it could be the only 30 minutes in your day that you have all to yourself.

Aerobic exercise videos and DVDs are also effective if you use them! They are convenient if you prefer to work out at home instead of taking a class at a studio or a gym, and there are hundreds to choose from.

I suggest that you check out Collage Video http: Also check if your local library rents exercise videos on tape or DVD. And by the way, there are videos for all types of activity; from weight training, to tai-chi, to stretching. Check out all the possibilities to add flexibility and strength-building to your cardio workout. What are the different types of aerobics classes? Step, funk-fusion, hip-hop, jazz, kick box, boot camp, cardio box There are dozens of classes to choose from.

They last anywhere from minutes and vary in intensity. Here's some advice for choosing classes:. Classes are great for people who like to exercise with others, who like to dance, who like music and rhythm, who want the extra motivation and energy that an instructor and class provides, and who prefer the structure and schedule of a regular class.

Classes, equipment, and videos are all great ways to stay fit and healthy, but if you're limited by injury or other conditions, then aerobic exercise chair workouts may be just the thing see resources for online vendors. The instructor leads you through a workout in a chair and it's great exercise. You might not need chair exercise, but you may have a parent or friend who does. Exercise videos and DVDs make great gifts! The bottom line to equipment, classes, and videos is that if they get your heart rate elevated and keep it there, then it's aerobic and it counts!

There you have it. Aerobic exercise is awesome stuff! It strengthens your heart, adds strength to your muscles and makes them more efficient fuel-burners, increases your endurance and your energy, improves your mood, makes you fit and healthy, and much, much more. It could take as little as 30 minutes out of your day for a tremendous payoff so I suggest giving it a shot.

Follow my advice for getting started by doing only what is realistic and build up slowly. You have only health and fitness to gain, and you're worth it! What resources are available to people interested in aerobics? I also agree to receive emails from MedicineNet and I understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet subscriptions at any time. See how to properly perform seven exercises including squats, lunges, crunches, and the bend-over row.

Good technique is a must for effective and safe workouts. A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar glucose control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes.

There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets. Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes. Heat exhaustion is a milder form of heat-related illness that can develop after several days of exposure to high temperatures and inadequate or unbalanced replacement fluids. Warning signs of heat exhaustion include heavy sweating, paleness, muscle cramps, tiredness, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea or vomiting, and fainting.

A person suffering from heat exhaustion should stop the activity are doing, move to a cooler environment, and rehydrate with liquids, for example, water or sports drinks. Complications of heat exhaustion are dehydration, muscle weakness, nausea, and vomiting. Heat exhaustion can progress to heat stroke a medical emergency if not treated. Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose sugar from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues.

There are no signs or symptoms of insulin resistance. Causes of insulin can include conditions such as stress, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and steroid use. Some of the risk factors for insulin resistance include fatty liver, heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, high cholesterol, and smoking.

Treatment for insulin resistance are lifestyle changes and if necessary, medication. Triggers for migraine headaches include certain foods, stress, hormonal changes, strong stimuli loud noises , and oversleeping. Treatment guidelines for migraines include medicine, pain management, diet changes, avoiding foods that trigger migraines, staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly. Prevention of migraine triggers include getting regular exercise, drinking water daily, reducing stress, and avoiding trigger foods.

Osteoporosis Learn about osteoporosis, a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, which leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. Unless one experiences a fracture, a person may have osteoporosis for decades without knowing it.

Treatment for osteoporosis may involve medications that stop bone loss and increase bone strength and bone formation, as well as quitting smoking, regular exercise, cutting back on alcohol intake, and eating a calcium- and vitamin D-rich balanced diet. Pacemaker A pacemaker is a device or system that sends electrical impulses to the heart in order to set the heart rhythm. A pacemaker can be a natural pacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node or it can be an electronic device that serves as an artificial pacemaker.

Staph Infection Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce.

Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus. Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics.

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Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: Cuff, DJ, et al. Effective exercise modality to reduce insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.

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Types of Alcoholic Beverages