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Leavened bread was more common in wheat-growing regions in the south, while unleavened flatbread of barley, rye or oats remained more common in northern and highland regions, and unleavened flatbread was also common as provisions for troops. Discount Codes for Nutrisystem When you hear about the results of those that use Nutrisystem, you might wonder how there could ever be a discount on a great product like this? Depending on the size and weight of the meat, the cook chose a heavy or light spit of various lengths. Medieval Food — academic articles and videos The History Notes website tells the story about the food and drink in the Middle Ages Le Viandier de Taillevent — An online translation of the 14th century cookbook by James Prescott Medieval cookery books at the British Library — Learning resources on the medieval kitchen How to Cook Medieval — A guide on how to make medieval cuisine with modern ingredients The Forme of Cury — A late 14th-century English cookbook, available from Project Gutenberg Cariadoc's Miscellany — A collection of articles and recipes on medieval and Renaissance food MedievalCookery. Please Select Eating too much at meals Comforting myself with food Unhealthy food at home Food just tastes so good Snacking Eating out. One's lifestyle—including diet, exercise, appropriate social behavior, and approved medical remedies—was the way to good health, and all types of food were assigned certain properties that affected a person's health. A meal would ideally begin with easily digestible fruit, such as apples.
Nutrisystem Discount Code for 2017 – Diet at Lower Cost
Several user testimonies have proclaimed this to be effective while others have had a flimsy relationship with the fitness center, which may be blamed on the effectiveness of their own personal counselors rather than the effectiveness of the fitness center itself.
With some testimonies attributing their newfound success in weight loss to the Slim 4 Life program, many say that their success was due to their additional expenses and personal motivation to exercise on their own. The company operates over 30 outlets accessible throughout Kansas, Missouri, and Texas.
Within these weight-loss sites, its clients are cared for by an on-call staff of counselors to aid them in their adjustment to their personal diet program. After paying for the length of your membership and enrolling in one of the two programs, you will be asked to undergo an assessment based on your age, sex, medical condition, and physical fitness to determine your individual diet plan.
Customers are generally tasked to follow a low-calorie diet limiting their calorie intake to about 1, calories. Although the company markets its grocery store diet, the company encourages clients to take advantage of their food supplements and products to help aid in the weight loss process, but with a hefty price tag attached. While following the diet, you will be recommended certain food types to avoid, usually those that have a high-calorie count or high-fat content.
A counselor will be available for routine consults regarding your program and changes in diet. Exercise does provide great health benefits, but exercise alone does not greatly contribute to the goal of weight loss. Feedback on weight loss has primarily been attributed to the effect of limiting calorie intake; even going as far as simply limiting carbohydrate intake.
Calories from sugar contribute to fat storage. Choosing instead to focus on dieting over exercise, the fitness centers focus on the adjustment of their clients to a healthy diet.
Anthropologist Herman Pontzer proved in his study that highly active individuals expend just as much energy as moderately active individuals, yet neither group was achieving any significant weight loss changes. The study proves that the effectiveness of an increase in physical activity reaches a plateau in individuals, which then leads to the body conforming to the energy and exhaustion levels as time passes. More than exercise, sugar intake is the main factor when it comes to fitness, according to Slim 4 Life.
Another study in pushed this conclusion further by setting three test samples of fitness groups. The three groups were categorized into those who performed exercises only, performed diet only, and both exercised and dieted during the same time period.
Results revealed that the poorest results came from the exercise-only group. The diet consists of restricting certain food types while limiting your calorie intake. This means that the diet will primarily consist of small meals that are designed to provide enough nutrients to your body while limiting the risk of gaining excess fat from unneeded calories. These food types are suggested and planned along with their recommended array of food supplements found on their website.
Slim 4 Life Forbidden Foods. Like other diet plans, it is a big no-no on high-calorie products and sucrose products. Generally, salty and sugary foods are to be avoided.
While there are not many side effects when adhering to a low-calorie diet, there have been reports of the following. But these symptoms usually fade away after the body adjusts to the diet after a few weeks. Although the company boasts its year span of company history, there is no official historical background provided on the website.
Although there have been studies detailing that a healthy diet is an integral aspect of weight loss, it is also important to note that every diet must be paired with some sort of physical fitness routine recommended by the company but not marketed as its selling point.
One of the main difficulties with weight loss centers is that it is a physical establishment, meaning it can only serve clients that are geographically close to their centers. The results show that an on-site one-on-one counseling session with their staff is much more effective when talking about the transition period to the new diet compared to receiving instructions from far away. Another issue that might cause clients to be critical of the company is their relatively high counseling rates and a wide array of products.
Though the results do not lie, the results vary from person to person and Slim 4 Life proves that the more you pay, the more weight you lose. It has been proven that the most effective method for weight loss is a combination of both a healthy, calorie-reduced diet program fit to your liking and a proper exercise regimen. This can aid in weight loss by improving your cardiovascular health and in building muscle tissue to burn more calories than other types of body tissue.
If you stick to the program, you will lose weight. I lost 75 pounds ,which was my goal. I love the way my clothes fit now. Are we racing around to find a Slim 4 Life location? While this weight loss program is an ideal choice for some; as mentioned above, there are options. Weight loss involves many things, including diet, exercise and the right supplement that helps you reach your goals. One of the products we like the most is Burn TS. The formula contains four clinically-tested ingredients, that have been shown to promote weight-loss by accelerating metabolism and igniting fat loss.
Choosing the right weight-loss system can be confusing and often times frustrating. Let us know a little more about you and your goals. Also, Slim 4 Life has third-party verification of weight-loss results. Choosing the right product is the 1 question asked by DietSpotlight readers.
We recommend trying any product before buying it and know that finding a product with a sample offer is near impossible - so we created our own product, Burn TS, with scientifically backed ingredients. There are two ways to follow Slim 4 Life. You can use the at-home program or start by scheduling a consultation at one of the locations.
Slim 4 Life can be purchased using their Official Site or through Amazon. Your first Slim 4 Life consultation lasts about 30 minutes and the consultant gathers personal information to tailor a plan to fit your needs.
The company helps users gather required information for insurance companies to personally file claims. You can eat regular foods like dairy, fats, carbohydrates, vegetables, fruits and proteins when following Slim 4 Life. Summer Banks, Director of Content at Dietspotlight, has researched over weight-loss programs, pills, shakes and diet plans. Previously, she managed 15 supplement brands, worked with professionals in the weight loss industry and completed coursework in nutrition at Stanford University.
Do Not Send Email Notifications. My blood pressure is down and have been able to decrease my medication. I have kept the weight off for almost a year. Even during the holidays when I cheated a bit and an occasional Twix. Seems to be a very balanced diet. The only thing you lose is your sanity and money if you are truely trying to lose alot of wieght this is not for you.
Please aviod the same trappings I did the advertisement was misleading. Cut out ALL fast food drink losts of water and move. I agree with Cristy!! This program cuts your calories way too low to be healthy long not part of a medical field and have no medical training.
The scrubs are deceptive as is the advertisements and representations. If you want any information, email me at alstewart2 sbcglobal. Do you get a response to the corp office number, if so I would love for you to share. Did anyone find a number to a corporate office- I am very unhappy with them and how I was treated- I was not losing the 3 to 5 pounds quaranteed and now am just getting blown off by the center. I certainly do not agree with how you felt you were treated by the Slim for Life representative, as she should have maintained a professional attitude and responded to your needs with understanding,and explaniations, rather than insult.
The result would be that as people were leading a healthy lifestyle, taking care of their medical issues with herbals, the Drs industry would be negatively affected. I have used herbal supplements for many medical issues that I have encountered in my life with little to no side affects, I have been able to avoid the Dr Appointments and the prescriptions, with the long and distubing list of possible side affects that I may encounter which is longer and more damaging than the symptoms to the initial health issue I was encountering.
There are alternative solutions out there. I have several friends that have been very successful with the Slim 4 life plan as well as other plans that are availble. The internet is a great resource for research. You are absolutely right. I was saying the same thing when I was reading what the doctor said.
What in the world could an herbal drug do to hinder your prescription drug except for maybe keep the prescription side affects from killing you? You should really be looking at what that prescription is doing to your system as opposed to the herbs.
I was on Weight Watchers for over a year and lost alot of weight but did not stick with it so I have gained half of it back.
I just joined Slim 4 Life because you can talk to someone for support daily one on one instead of once a week in front of a large group. I have high blood pressure and high colest. Can you tell me what program they use for people with these conditions? I started slim4life Dec. I did loose down to lbs and really maintained at about to as the year finished out — however I began to show symptoms of something. Went to doctor and turns out that my liver has been affected and that something has brought this on — I do wonder if it was all of the thermoboost powder which I drank on a daily basis for the year along with the thermo snacks required during weight loss.
If you have had a similar issue please respond back to me ASAP — I am unable to find out much since slim4life is now slimgenics and they no longer allow past participates to purchase product. I am interested in anything that might be similar to my situation. Hi, I did slim 4 life as well and lost about 35 lbs. Before I started, I had normal liver function tests. When I had my blood tested, post S4L i had elevated liver function x2 , I recently went back and had it checked again and now I have elevated liver function x3.
The only thing in my life that changed during that time was that I was on S4L. I highly suspect that either the carb blockers or the red grays have affected my liver.
I am no longer on S4L and I no longer take any of their supplements. I never used the thermoboost powder but I took all the supplements as directed during the program. I too am being evaluated for elevated liver function. It started with a dull ache in the liver area right after I started slimgenics. I have an ultrasound tomorrow, will keep you posted. I have been off the supplements for at least a month but am still having the pain…. I started slim4life in May, at lbs…am now at and while I love the way I look, my hair is falling out and my kidney function is out of whack as well as my ferritin levels have bottomed out.
I would just like to know how the product work? Another thing is how much it cost to get started with the program? Is this something i could do without paying a large amount of money? What are the key elements to losing weight on this program? What makes this program different from the other programs out? Slim 4 Life is a good program. They do teach you the essentials of eating healthy. However, the weight that you lose is great but, you may also be losing muscle since they do not incorporate working out into the program.
You do take supplements such as a daily vitamin, essential fatty acids fish oil and an appetite suppressant they call the metabolizer not to mention the protein bars and shakes that run more than I went from to in a short amount of time.
Once, I hit I plateaued miserably. I did all that they asked me to do and could not lose any more weight. I was basically told, they could not help me. I left Slim 4 Life and they still call me wanting me to come in. I work out now and still eat healthy but, I eat corn, carrots, and cheese. All of which is forbidden until you lose ALL the weight. I am happy and healthy and still am losing in a healthy way on my own.. Wish I had read this page before I spent almost two thousand dollars on Slim 4 Life.
I was on the program for aproximately three and a half weeks going to the store four times a week for weigh ins. I lost six pounds by drinking tons of water and taking there suplements which ending up making my heart race.
I ended up in the Doctors office thinking I was having a heart attack. Believe me there is no money back guarantee. This turned out to be one big mistake….. Hi, l feel the same way two thousand dollars on slim 4 life. The pills did not do a thing for me. I need to get some of my money back. I tried slim for life a year ago and it is so disappointing. Once you break the diet down you are allowed to eat between calories a day!
I spent over 2K on slim for life to lose 30 pounds. I took all the nasty pills and drank the nasty power boost and did the whole thing.
I lost about 28 in 12 weeks. But I am healthier and happier. I was not obese but took off the weight for vanity. I lost 9 lbs in 3 weeks…. Dieting is about Calories in and Calories out…. I only had 18 lbs. I feel very jittery and weak. I am a mother and cannot really focus and be there for my kids the way I need to be because of the way I feel. I did the Atkins diet years ago and went from a size 12 to a 2 in months and never felt like this.
I have lost maybe 4 lbs. Now here i am at 5 months and one thing i have noticed is that even though i am not doing the diet that well, i am still using supplements and i am loosing hair like crazy. At first i thought it might be my age as i am 58, or maybe a medication, even though i had been on it for months, but this is crazy loss. Yes, I too was losing hair like crazy. I have very fine thin hair so this was a real concern.
I also thought it might be my age as I was 50 the first time I did the program. The regional specialties that are a feature of early modern and contemporary cuisine were not in evidence in the sparser documentation that survives.
Instead, medieval cuisine can be differentiated by the cereals and the oils that shaped dietary norms and crossed ethnic and, later, national boundaries. Geographical variation in eating was primarily the result of differences in climate, political administration, and local customs that varied across the continent. Though sweeping generalizations should be avoided, more or less distinct areas where certain foodstuffs dominated can be discerned. In the British Isles , northern France , the Low Countries , the northern German-speaking areas, Scandinavia and the Baltic , the climate was generally too harsh for the cultivation of grapes and olives.
In the south, wine was the common drink for both rich and poor alike though the commoner usually had to settle for cheap second pressing wine while beer was the commoner's drink in the north and wine an expensive import.
Citrus fruits though not the kinds most common today and pomegranates were common around the Mediterranean. Dried figs and dates were available in the north, but were used rather sparingly in cooking. Olive oil was a ubiquitous ingredient in Mediterranean cultures, but remained an expensive import in the north where oils of poppy , walnut, hazel and filbert were the most affordable alternatives.
Butter and lard , especially after the terrible mortality during the Black Death made them less scarce, were used in considerable quantities in the northern and northwestern regions, especially in the Low Countries. Almost universal in middle and upper class cooking all over Europe was the almond , which was in the ubiquitous and highly versatile almond milk , which was used as a substitute in dishes that otherwise required eggs or milk, though the bitter variety of almonds came along much later.
In Europe there were typically two meals a day: The two-meal system remained consistent throughout the late Middle Ages. Smaller intermediate meals were common, but became a matter of social status, as those who did not have to perform manual labor could go without them. For practical reasons, breakfast was still eaten by working men, and was tolerated for young children, women, the elderly and the sick.
Because the church preached against gluttony and other weaknesses of the flesh, men tended to be ashamed of the weak practicality of breakfast. Lavish dinner banquets and late-night reresopers from Occitan rèire-sopar , "late supper" with considerable amounts of alcoholic beverage were considered immoral. The latter were especially associated with gambling, crude language, drunkenness, and lewd behavior.
As with almost every part of life at the time, a medieval meal was generally a communal affair. The entire household, including servants, would ideally dine together. To sneak off to enjoy private company was considered a haughty and inefficient egotism in a world where people depended very much on each other.
When possible, rich hosts retired with their consorts to private chambers where the meal could be enjoyed in greater exclusivity and privacy. Being invited to a lord's chambers was a great privilege and could be used as a way to reward friends and allies and to awe subordinates.
It allowed lords to distance themselves further from the household and to enjoy more luxurious treats while serving inferior food to the rest of the household that still dined in the great hall. At major occasions and banquets, however, the host and hostess generally dined in the great hall with the other diners. However, it can be assumed there were no such extravagant luxuries as multiple courses , luxurious spices or hand-washing in scented water in everyday meals. Things were different for the wealthy.
Before the meal and between courses, shallow basins and linen towels were offered to guests so they could wash their hands, as cleanliness was emphasized. Social codes made it difficult for women to uphold the ideal of immaculate neatness and delicacy while enjoying a meal, so the wife of the host often dined in private with her entourage or ate very little at such feasts.
She could then join dinner only after the potentially messy business of eating was done. Overall, fine dining was a predominantly male affair, and it was uncommon for anyone but the most honored of guests to bring his wife or her ladies-in-waiting.
The hierarchical nature of society was reinforced by etiquette where the lower ranked were expected to help the higher, the younger to assist the elder, and men to spare women the risk of sullying dress and reputation by having to handle food in an unwomanly fashion. Shared drinking cups were common even at lavish banquets for all but those who sat at the high table , as was the standard etiquette of breaking bread and carving meat for one's fellow diners.
Food was mostly served on plates or in stew pots, and diners would take their share from the dishes and place it on trenchers of stale bread, wood or pewter with the help of spoons or bare hands. In lower-class households it was common to eat food straight off the table. Knives were used at the table, but most people were expected to bring their own, and only highly favored guests would be given a personal knife. A knife was usually shared with at least one other dinner guest, unless one was of very high rank or well-acquainted with the host.
Forks for eating were not in widespread usage in Europe until the early modern period , and early on were limited to Italy. Even there it was not until the 14th century that the fork became common among Italians of all social classes. The change in attitudes can be illustrated by the reactions to the table manners of the Byzantine princess Theodora Doukaina in the late 11th century. She was the wife of Domenico Selvo , the Doge of Venice , and caused considerable dismay among upstanding Venetians.
The foreign consort's insistence on having her food cut up by her eunuch servants and then eating the pieces with a golden fork shocked and upset the diners so much that there was a claim that Peter Damian , Cardinal Bishop of Ostia , later interpreted her refined foreign manners as pride and referred to her as " All types of cooking involved the direct use of fire.
Kitchen stoves did not appear until the 18th century, and cooks had to know how to cook directly over an open fire. Ovens were used, but they were expensive to construct and only existed in fairly large households and bakeries.
It was common for a community to have shared ownership of an oven to ensure that the bread baking essential to everyone was made communal rather than private. There were also portable ovens designed to be filled with food and then buried in hot coals, and even larger ones on wheels that were used to sell pies in the streets of medieval towns.
But for most people, almost all cooking was done in simple stewpots, since this was the most efficient use of firewood and did not waste precious cooking juices, making potages and stews the most common dishes.
This was considered less of a problem in a time of back-breaking toil, famine, and a greater acceptance—even desirability—of plumpness; only the poor or sick, and devout ascetics , were thin. Fruit was readily combined with meat, fish and eggs. The recipe for Tart de brymlent , a fish pie from the recipe collection Forme of Cury , includes a mix of figs , raisins , apples and pears with fish salmon , codling or haddock and pitted damson plums under the top crust.
This meant that food had to be "tempered" according to its nature by an appropriate combination of preparation and mixing certain ingredients, condiments and spices; fish was seen as being cold and moist, and best cooked in a way that heated and dried it, such as frying or oven baking, and seasoned with hot and dry spices; beef was dry and hot and should therefore be boiled ; pork was hot and moist and should therefore always be roasted.
In a recipe for quince pie, cabbage is said to work equally well, and in another turnips could be replaced by pears. The completely edible shortcrust pie did not appear in recipes until the 15th century. Before that the pastry was primarily used as a cooking container in a technique known as ' huff paste '. Extant recipe collections show that gastronomy in the Late Middle Ages developed significantly.
New techniques, like the shortcrust pie and the clarification of jelly with egg whites began to appear in recipes in the late 14th century and recipes began to include detailed instructions instead of being mere memory aids to an already skilled cook.
In most households, cooking was done on an open hearth in the middle of the main living area, to make efficient use of the heat. This was the most common arrangement, even in wealthy households, for most of the Middle Ages, where the kitchen was combined with the dining hall.
Towards the Late Middle Ages a separate kitchen area began to evolve. The first step was to move the fireplaces towards the walls of the main hall, and later to build a separate building or wing that contained a dedicated kitchen area, often separated from the main building by a covered arcade.
This way, the smoke, odors and bustle of the kitchen could be kept out of sight of guests, and the fire risk lessened. Many basic variations of cooking utensils available today, such as frying pans , pots , kettles , and waffle irons , already existed, although they were often too expensive for poorer households. Other tools more specific to cooking over an open fire were spits of various sizes, and material for skewering anything from delicate quails to whole oxen.
Utensils were often held directly over the fire or placed into embers on tripods. To assist the cook there were also assorted knives, stirring spoons, ladles and graters.
In wealthy households one of the most common tools was the mortar and sieve cloth, since many medieval recipes called for food to be finely chopped, mashed, strained and seasoned either before or after cooking. This was based on a belief among physicians that the finer the consistency of food, the more effectively the body would absorb the nourishment.
It also gave skilled cooks the opportunity to elaborately shape the results. Fine-textured food was also associated with wealth; for example, finely milled flour was expensive, while the bread of commoners was typically brown and coarse.
A typical procedure was farcing from the Latin farcio , "to cram" , to skin and dress an animal, grind up the meat and mix it with spices and other ingredients and then return it into its own skin, or mold it into the shape of a completely different animal. The kitchen staff of huge noble or royal courts occasionally numbered in the hundreds: While an average peasant household often made do with firewood collected from the surrounding woodlands, the major kitchens of households had to cope with the logistics of daily providing at least two meals for several hundred people.
Guidelines on how to prepare for a two-day banquet can be found in the cookbook Du fait de cuisine "On cookery" written in in part to compete with the court of Burgundy  by Maistre Chiquart, master chef of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy.
Food preservation methods were basically the same as had been used since antiquity, and did not change much until the invention of canning in the early 19th century. The most common and simplest method was to expose foodstuffs to heat or wind to remove moisture , thereby prolonging the durability if not the flavor of almost any type of food from cereals to meats; the drying of food worked by drastically reducing the activity of various water-dependent microorganisms that cause decay.
In warm climates this was mostly achieved by leaving food out in the sun, and in the cooler northern climates by exposure to strong winds especially common for the preparation of stockfish , or in warm ovens, cellars, attics, and at times even in living quarters. Subjecting food to a number of chemical processes such as smoking , salting , brining , conserving or fermenting also made it keep longer.
Most of these methods had the advantage of shorter preparation times and of introducing new flavors. Smoking or salting meat of livestock butchered in autumn was a common household strategy to avoid having to feed more animals than necessary during the lean winter months. Vegetables, eggs or fish were also often pickled in tightly packed jars, containing brine and acidic liquids lemon juice , verjuice or vinegar.
Another method was to seal the food by cooking it in sugar or honey or fat, in which it was then stored. Microbial modification was also encouraged, however, by a number of methods; grains, fruit and grapes were turned into alcoholic drinks thus killing any pathogens, and milk was fermented and curdled into a multitude of cheeses or buttermilk.
The majority of the European population before industrialization lived in rural communities or isolated farms and households.
The norm was self-sufficiency with only a small percentage of production being exported or sold in markets. Large towns were exceptions and required their surrounding hinterlands to support them with food and fuel. The dense urban population could support a wide variety of food establishments that catered to various social groups.
Many of the poor city dwellers had to live in cramped conditions without access to a kitchen or even a hearth, and many did not own the equipment for basic cooking. Food from vendors was in such cases the only option. Cookshops could either sell ready-made hot food, an early form of fast food , or offer cooking services while the customers supplied some or all of the ingredients. Travellers, such as pilgrims en route to a holy site, made use of professional cooks to avoid having to carry their provisions with them.
For the more affluent, there were many types of specialist that could supply various foods and condiments: Well-off citizens who had the means to cook at home could on special occasions hire professionals when their own kitchen or staff could not handle the burden of throwing a major banquet. Urban cookshops that catered to workers or the destitute were regarded as unsavory and disreputable places by the well-to-do and professional cooks tended to have a bad reputation.
Geoffrey Chaucer 's Hodge of Ware, the London cook from the Canterbury Tales , is described as a sleazy purveyor of unpalatable food. French cardinal Jacques de Vitry 's sermons from the early 13th century describe sellers of cooked meat as an outright health hazard. The stereotypical cook in art and literature was male, hot-tempered, prone to drunkenness, and often depicted guarding his stewpot from being pilfered by both humans and animals.
In the early 15th century, the English monk John Lydgate articulated the beliefs of many of his contemporaries by proclaiming that "Hoot ffir [fire] and smoke makith many an angry cook. The period between c. More intense agriculture on an ever-increasing acreage resulted in a shift from animal products, like meat and dairy, to various grains and vegetables as the staple of the majority population.
A bread-based diet became gradually more common during the 15th century and replaced warm intermediate meals that were porridge- or gruel-based. Leavened bread was more common in wheat-growing regions in the south, while unleavened flatbread of barley, rye or oats remained more common in northern and highland regions, and unleavened flatbread was also common as provisions for troops. The most common grains were rye , barley , buckwheat , millet and oats. Rice remained a fairly expensive import for most of the Middle Ages and was grown in northern Italy only towards the end of the period.
Wheat was common all over Europe and was considered to be the most nutritious of all grains, but was more prestigious and thus more expensive. The finely sifted white flour that modern Europeans are most familiar with was reserved for the bread of the upper classes. As one descended the social ladder, bread became coarser, darker, and its bran content increased. In times of grain shortages or outright famine, grains could be supplemented with cheaper and less desirable substitutes like chestnuts , dried legumes , acorns , ferns , and a wide variety of more or less nutritious vegetable matter.
One of the most common constituents of a medieval meal, either as part of a banquet or as a small snack, were sops , pieces of bread with which a liquid like wine , soup , broth , or sauce could be soaked up and eaten. Another common sight at the medieval dinner table was the frumenty , a thick wheat porridge often boiled in a meat broth and seasoned with spices. Porridges were also made of every type of grain and could be served as desserts or dishes for the sick, if boiled in milk or almond milk and sweetened with sugar.
Pies filled with meats, eggs, vegetables, or fruit were common throughout Europe, as were turnovers , fritters , doughnuts , and many similar pastries. By the Late Middle Ages biscuits cookies in the U.
Grain, either as bread crumbs or flour, was also the most common thickener of soups and stews, alone or in combination with almond milk. The importance of bread as a daily staple meant that bakers played a crucial role in any medieval community. Bread consumption was high in most of Western Europe by the 14th century. Estimates of bread consumption from different regions are fairly similar: Among the first town guilds to be organized were the bakers', and laws and regulations were passed to keep bread prices stable.
The English Assize of Bread and Ale of listed extensive tables where the size, weight, and price of a loaf of bread were regulated in relation to grain prices.
The baker's profit margin stipulated in the tables was later increased through successful lobbying from the London Baker's Company by adding the cost of everything from firewood and salt to the baker's wife, house, and dog.
Since bread was such a central part of the medieval diet, swindling by those who were trusted with supplying the precious commodity to the community was considered a serious offense. Bakers who were caught tampering with weights or adulterating dough with less expensive ingredients could receive severe penalties.
This gave rise to the " baker's dozen ": While grains were the primary constituent of most meals, vegetables such as cabbage , chard , onions , garlic and carrots were common foodstuffs. Many of these were eaten daily by peasants and workers and were less prestigious than meat. The cookbooks, which appeared in the late Middle Ages and were intended mostly for those who could afford such luxuries, contained only a small number of recipes using vegetables as the main ingredient.
The lack of recipes for many basic vegetable dishes, such as potages , has been interpreted not to mean that they were absent from the meals of the nobility, but rather that they were considered so basic that they did not require recording. Various legumes , like chickpeas , fava beans and field peas were also common and important sources of protein , especially among the lower classes. With the exception of peas, legumes were often viewed with some suspicion by the dietitians advising the upper class, partly because of their tendency to cause flatulence but also because they were associated with the coarse food of peasants.
The importance of vegetables to the common people is illustrated by accounts from 16th-century Germany stating that many peasants ate sauerkraut from three to four times a day. Fruit was popular and could be served fresh, dried, or preserved, and was a common ingredient in many cooked dishes.
The fruits of choice in the south were lemons , citrons , bitter oranges the sweet type was not introduced until several hundred years later , pomegranates , quinces , and, of course, grapes. Farther north, apples , pears , plums , and strawberries were more common. Figs and dates were eaten all over Europe, but remained rather expensive imports in the north. Common and often basic ingredients in many modern European cuisines like potatoes , kidney beans , cacao , vanilla , tomatoes , chili peppers and maize were not available to Europeans until after , after European contact with the Americas, and even then it often took considerable time, sometimes several centuries, for the new foodstuffs to be accepted by society at large.
Milk was an important source of animal protein for those who could not afford meat. It would mostly come from cows, but milk from goats and sheep was also common. Plain fresh milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, and was usually reserved for the very young or elderly. Poor adults would sometimes drink buttermilk or whey or milk that was soured or watered down. On occasion it was used in upper-class kitchens in stews, but it was difficult to keep fresh in bulk and almond milk was generally used in its stead.
Cheese was far more important as a foodstuff, especially for common people, and it has been suggested that it was, during many periods, the chief supplier of animal protein among the lower classes.
There were also whey cheeses , like ricotta , made from by-products of the production of harder cheeses. Cheese was used in cooking for pies and soups, the latter being common fare in German-speaking areas. Butter , another important dairy product, was in popular use in the regions of Northern Europe that specialized in cattle production in the latter half of the Middle Ages, the Low Countries and Southern Scandinavia.
While most other regions used oil or lard as cooking fats, butter was the dominant cooking medium in these areas. Its production also allowed for a lucrative butter export from the 12th century onward. While all forms of wild game were popular among those who could obtain it, most meat came from domestic animals. Domestic working animals that were no longer able to work were slaughtered but not particularly appetizing and therefore were less valued as meat.
Beef was not as common as today because raising cattle was labor-intensive, requiring pastures and feed, and oxen and cows were much more valuable as draught animals and for producing milk. Mutton and lamb were fairly common, especially in areas with a sizeable wool industry, as was veal. Domestic pigs often ran freely even in towns and could be fed on just about any organic waste, and suckling pig was a sought-after delicacy. Just about every part of the pig was eaten, including ears, snout, tail, tongue , and womb.
Intestines, bladder and stomach could be used as casings for sausage or even illusion food such as giant eggs. Among the meats that today are rare or even considered inappropriate for human consumption are the hedgehog and porcupine , occasionally mentioned in late medieval recipe collections.
In England, they were deliberately introduced by the 13th century and their colonies were carefully protected. They were of particular value for monasteries, because newborn rabbits were allegedly declared fish or, at least, not-meat by the church and therefore they could be eaten during Lent.
A wide range of birds were eaten, including swans , peafowl , quail , partridge , storks , cranes , larks , linnets and other songbirds that could be trapped in nets, and just about any other wild bird that could be hunted. Swans and peafowl were domesticated to some extent, but were only eaten by the social elite, and more praised for their fine appearance as stunning entertainment dishes, entremets , than for their meat.
As today, geese and ducks had been domesticated but were not as popular as the chicken , the fowl equivalent of the pig. But at the Fourth Council of the Lateran , Pope Innocent III explicitly prohibited the eating of barnacle geese during Lent, arguing that they lived and fed like ducks and so were of the same nature as other birds.
Meats were more expensive than plant foods. Though rich in protein , the calorie -to-weight ratio of meat was less than that of plant food. Meat could be up to four times as expensive as bread.
Fish was up to 16 times as costly, and was expensive even for coastal populations. This meant that fasts could mean an especially meager diet for those who could not afford alternatives to meat and animal products like milk and eggs. It was only after the Black Death had eradicated up to half of the European population that meat became more common even for poorer people.
The drastic reduction in many populated areas resulted in a labor shortage, meaning that wages dramatically increased. It also left vast areas of farmland untended, making them available for pasture and putting more meat on the market. Although less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Also included were the beaver , due to its scaly tail and considerable time spent in water, and barnacle geese , due to the belief that they developed underwater in the form of barnacles.
The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II examined barnacles and noted no evidence of any bird-like embryo in them, and the secretary of Leo of Rozmital wrote a very skeptical account of his reaction to being served barnacle goose at a fish-day dinner in Especially important was the fishing and trade in herring and cod in the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.
The herring was of unprecedented significance to the economy of much of Northern Europe, and it was one of the most common commodities traded by the Hanseatic League , a powerful north German alliance of trading guilds. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. Stockfish , cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water.
A wide range of mollusks including oysters , mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days.
Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most. Freshwater fish such as pike , carp , bream , perch , lamprey and trout were common. While in modern times, water is often drunk with a meal, in the Middle Ages, however, concerns over purity, medical recommendations and its low prestige value made it less favored, and alcoholic beverages were preferred.
They were seen as more nutritious and beneficial to digestion than water, with the invaluable bonus of being less prone to putrefaction due to the alcohol content. Wine was consumed on a daily basis in most of France and all over the Western Mediterranean wherever grapes were cultivated. Further north it remained the preferred drink of the bourgeoisie and the nobility who could afford it, and far less common among peasants and workers.
The drink of commoners in the northern parts of the continent was primarily beer or ale. Juices , as well as wines, of a multitude of fruits and berries had been known at least since Roman antiquity and were still consumed in the Middle Ages: Medieval drinks that have survived to this day include prunellé from wild plums modern-day slivovitz , mulberry gin and blackberry wine. Many variants of mead have been found in medieval recipes, with or without alcoholic content.
However, the honey -based drink became less common as a table beverage towards the end of the period and was eventually relegated to medicinal use. This is partially true since mead bore great symbolic value at important occasions. When agreeing on treaties and other important affairs of state, mead was often presented as a ceremonial gift.
It was also common at weddings and baptismal parties, though in limited quantity due to its high price. In medieval Poland , mead had a status equivalent to that of imported luxuries, such as spices and wines. Plain milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, being reserved for the very young or elderly, and then usually as buttermilk or whey.
Fresh milk was overall less common than other dairy products because of the lack of technology to keep it from spoiling. However, neither of these non-alcoholic social drinks were consumed in Europe before the late 16th and early 17th century. Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice.
According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down. Unlike water or beer, which were considered cold and moist, consumption of wine in moderation especially red wine was, among other things, believed to aid digestion, generate good blood and brighten the mood.
The first pressing was made into the finest and most expensive wines which were reserved for the upper classes. The second and third pressings were subsequently of lower quality and alcohol content. Common folk usually had to settle for a cheap white or rosé from a second or even third pressing, meaning that it could be consumed in quite generous amounts without leading to heavy intoxication.
For the poorest or the most pious , watered-down vinegar similar to Ancient Roman posca would often be the only available choice. The aging of high quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in an even more expensive end product. Judging from the advice given in many medieval documents on how to salvage wine that bore signs of going bad, preservation must have been a widespread problem.
Even if vinegar was a common ingredient, there was only so much of it that could be used. In the 14th century cookbook Le Viandier there are several methods for salvaging spoiling wine; making sure that the wine barrels are always topped up or adding a mixture of dried and boiled white grape seeds with the ash of dried and burnt lees of white wine were both effective bactericides , even if the chemical processes were not understood at the time.
Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome.
Spiced wines were usually made by mixing an ordinary red wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger , cardamom , pepper , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cloves and sugar. These would be contained in small bags which were either steeped in wine or had liquid poured over them to produce hypocras and claré.
By the 14th century, bagged spice mixes could be bought ready-made from spice merchants. While wine was the most common table beverage in much of Europe, this was not the case in the northern regions where grapes were not cultivated. Those who could afford it drank imported wine, but even for nobility in these areas it was common to drink beer or ale , particularly towards the end of the Middle Ages.
In England , the Low Countries , northern Germany , Poland and Scandinavia , beer was consumed on a daily basis by people of all social classes and age groups. For most medieval Europeans, it was a humble brew compared with common southern drinks and cooking ingredients, such as wine, lemons and olive oil.
Even comparatively exotic products like camel 's milk and gazelle meat generally received more positive attention in medical texts.
Beer was just an acceptable alternative and was assigned various negative qualities. In , the Sienese physician Aldobrandino described beer in the following way:. But from whichever it is made, whether from oats, barley or wheat, it harms the head and the stomach, it causes bad breath and ruins the teeth , it fills the stomach with bad fumes, and as a result anyone who drinks it along with wine becomes drunk quickly; but it does have the property of facilitating urination and makes one's flesh white and smooth.