Alcoholism

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The committee recommends that although data are insufficient regarding the effectiveness of universal prevention interventions, such interventions should be continued to raise awareness about the risks of FAS, ARBD, and ARND. Secondary prevention involves early detection and treatment of persons with early or asymptomatic disease, and tertiary prevention concentrates on arresting the progression of a condition and on preventing or limiting additional impairment. A state marker identifies a current abnormality that most typically reflects a transient or reactive condition of the subject, such as the degree of activity of an underlying disorder or the recent use of a drug. Magnesium helps to detox the pineal and magnesium delivers zinc. There is also a need to assess for other smoking products polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, etc. You should also learn about other birth control methods to choose the one that is best for you.

The Power of Fear

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Women who have or have had a history of breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, including Depo-Provera CI, because breast cancer may be hormonally sensitive [see Contraindications 4 ].

Women with a strong family history of breast cancer should be monitored with particular care. The results of five large case-control studies 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 assessing the association between depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate DMPA use and the risk of breast cancer are summarized in Figure 1.

Three of the studies suggest a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in the overall population of users; these increased risks were statistically significant in one study. One recent US study 1 evaluated the recency and duration of use and found a statistically significantly increased risk of breast cancer in recent users defined as last use within the past five years who used DMPA for 12 months or longer; this is consistent with results of a previous study 4.

Based on the published SEER incidence rate age-adjusted to the US Standard Population of breast cancer for US women, all races, age 20 to 49 years 6 , a doubling of risk would increase the incidence of breast cancer in women who use Depo-Provera CI from about 72 to about cases per , women.

A statistically nonsignificant increase in RR estimates of invasive squamous-cell cervical cancer has been associated with the use of Depo-Provera CI in women who were first exposed before the age of 35 years RR 1. The overall, nonsignificant relative rate of invasive squamous-cell cervical cancer in women who ever used Depo-Provera CI was estimated to be 1. No trends in risk with duration of use or times since initial or most recent exposure were observed.

Long-term case-controlled surveillance of users of Depo-Provera CI found no overall increased risk of ovarian or liver cancer. Be alert to the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy among women using Depo-Provera CI who become pregnant or complain of severe abdominal pain. Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reaction have been reported with the use of Depo-Provera CI. Institute emergency medical treatment if an anaphylactic reaction occurs. Persistent injection site reactions may occur after administration of Depo-Provera CI due to inadvertent subcutaneous administration or release of the drug into the subcutaneous space while removing the needle [see Dosage and Administration 2.

Discontinue Depo-Provera CI use if jaundice or acute or chronic disturbances of liver function develop. Do not resume use until markers of liver function return to normal and Depo-Provera CI causation has been excluded. There have been a few reported cases of convulsions in patients who were treated with Depo-Provera CI. Association with drug use or pre-existing conditions is not clear.

Monitor patients who have a history of depression and do not readminister Depo-Provera CI if depression recurs. Most women using Depo-Provera CI experience disruption of menstrual bleeding patterns. Altered menstrual bleeding patterns include amenorrhea, irregular or unpredictable bleeding or spotting, prolonged spotting or bleeding, and heavy bleeding. Rule out the possibility of organic pathology if abnormal bleeding persists or is severe, and institute appropriate treatment.

As women continue using Depo-Provera CI, fewer experience irregular bleeding and more experience amenorrhea. Women tend to gain weight while on therapy with Depo-Provera CI. From an initial average body weight of lb, women who completed 1 year of therapy with Depo-Provera CI gained an average of 5.

Women who completed 2 years of therapy gained an average of 8. Women who completed 4 years gained an average of Women who completed 6 years gained an average of Two percent of women withdrew from a large-scale clinical trial because of excessive weight gain. A decrease in glucose tolerance has been observed in some patients on Depo-Provera CI treatment.

Monitor diabetic patients carefully while receiving Depo-Provera CI. Detectable amounts of drug have been identified in the milk of mothers receiving Depo-Provera CI. In nursing mothers treated with Depo-Provera CI, milk composition, quality, and amount are not adversely affected. Neonates and infants exposed to medroxyprogesterone from breast milk have been studied for developmental and behavioral effects through puberty.

No adverse effects have been noted. Because progestational drugs including Depo-Provera CI may cause some degree of fluid retention, monitor patients with conditions that might be influenced by this condition, such as epilepsy, migraine, asthma, and cardiac or renal dysfunction.

Return to ovulation and fertility is likely to be delayed after stopping Depo-Provera CI. Of the women who discontinued the study to become pregnant, became pregnant. The median time to conception for those who do conceive is 10 months following the last injection with a range of 4 to 31 months, and is unrelated to the duration of use.

Although Depo-Provera CI should not be used during pregnancy, there appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in women who have inadvertently been exposed to medroxyprogesterone acetate injections in early pregnancy. Neonates exposed to medroxyprogesterone acetate in-utero and followed to adolescence showed no evidence of any adverse effects on their health including their physical, intellectual, sexual or social development.

A woman who is taking hormonal contraceptive should have a yearly visit with her healthcare provider for a blood pressure check and for other indicated healthcare. The use of Depo-Provera CI may change the results of some laboratory tests, such as coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, and binding proteins.

The following important adverse reactions observed with the use of Depo-Provera CI are discussed in greater detail in the Warnings and Precautions section Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In the two clinical trials with Depo-Provera CI, over 3, women, who were treated for up to 7 years, reported the following adverse reactions, which may or may not be related to the use of Depo-Provera CI. The patients received mg Depo-Provera CI every 3-months 90 days.

The median study duration was 13 months with a range of 1—84 months. The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Depo-Provera CI. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

There have been cases of osteoporosis including osteoporotic fractures reported post-marketing in patients taking Depo-Provera CI. If a woman on hormonal contraceptives takes a drug or herbal product that induces enzymes, including CYP3A4, that metabolize contraceptive hormones, counsel her to use additional contraception or a different method of contraception.

Drugs or herbal products that induce such enzymes may decrease the plasma concentrations of contraceptive hormones, and may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives.

Some drugs or herbal products that may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives include:. HIV protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Significant changes increase or decrease in the plasma levels of progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration of HIV protease inhibitors.

Significant changes increase or decrease in the plasma levels of the progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. There have been reports of pregnancy while taking hormonal contraceptives and antibiotics, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of antibiotics on plasma concentrations of synthetic steroids.

Consult the labeling of all concurrently-used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with hormonal contraceptives or the potential for enzyme alterations.

The pathologist should be advised of progestin therapy when relevant specimens are submitted. Depo-Provera CI should not be administered during pregnancy. Depo-Provera CI is not indicated before menarche.

It is unknown if use of Depo-Provera CI by younger women will reduce peak bone mass and increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures in later life. Other than concerns about loss of BMD, the safety and effectiveness are expected to be the same for postmenarchal adolescents and adult women. This product has not been studied in post-menopausal women and is not indicated in this population. The effect of renal impairment on Depo-Provera CI pharmacokinetics has not been studied. The effect of hepatic impairment on Depo-Provera CI pharmacokinetics has not been studied.

Depo-Provera CI should not be used by women with significant liver disease and should be discontinued if jaundice or disturbances of liver function occur.

Depo-Provera CI contains medroxyprogesterone acetate, a derivative of progesterone, as its active ingredient. Medroxyprogesterone acetate is active by the parenteral and oral routes of administration. It is freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in acetone and dioxane, sparingly soluble in alcohol and methanol, slightly soluble in ether, and insoluble in water. Depo-Provera CI medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA] , when administered at the recommended dose to women every 3 months, inhibits the secretion of gonadotropins which, in turn, prevents follicular maturation and ovulation and results in endometrial thinning.

These actions produce its contraceptive effect. MPA binding occurs primarily to serum albumin. MPA is extensively metabolized in the liver by P enzymes. Using an unextracted radioimmunoassay procedure for the assay of medroxyprogesterone acetate in serum, the apparent half-life for medroxyprogesterone acetate following IM administration of Depo-Provera CI is approximately 50 days.

Most medroxyprogesterone acetate metabolites are excreted in the urine as glucuronide conjugates with only minor amounts excreted as sulfates. In five clinical studies using Depo-Provera CI, the month failure rate for the group of women treated with Depo-Provera CI was zero no pregnancies reported to 0. The effectiveness of Depo-Provera CI is dependent on the patient returning every 3 months 13 weeks for reinjection.

The decline in BMD was more pronounced during the first two years of use, with smaller declines in subsequent years. Mean changes in lumbar spine BMD of Mean decreases in BMD of the total hip and femoral neck were similar. After stopping use of Depo-Provera CI mg , there was partial recovery of BMD toward baseline values during the 2-year post-therapy period.

Longer duration of treatment was associated with less complete recovery during this 2-year period following the last injection. Table 4 shows the change in BMD in women after 5 years of treatment with Depo-Provera CI and in women in a control group, as well as the extent of recovery of BMD for the subset of the women for whom 2-year post treatment data were available. The impact of Depo-Provera CI mg use for up to weeks 4. Partway through the trial, drug administration was stopped at weeks.

The mean number of injections per Depo-Provera CI user was 9. The decline in BMD at total hip and femoral neck was greater with longer duration of use see Table 5. The mean decrease in BMD at weeks was more pronounced at total hip In general, adolescents increase bone density during the period of growth following menarche, as seen in the untreated cohort.

However, the two cohorts were not matched at baseline for age, gynecologic age, race, BMD and other factors that influence the rate of acquisition of bone mineral density. Table 6 shows the extent of recovery of BMD up to 60 months post-treatment for adolescent women who received Depo-Provera CI for two years or less compared to more than two years.

Post-treatment follow-up showed that, in women treated for more than two years, only lumbar spine BMD recovered to baseline levels after treatment was discontinued. Subjects treated with Depo-Provera for more than two years did not recover to their baseline BMD level at femoral neck and total hip even up to 60 months post-treatment. Adolescent women in the untreated cohort gained BMD throughout the trial period data not shown. A retrospective cohort study to assess the association between DMPA injection and the incidence of bone fractures was conducted in , female contraceptive users in the UK.

It is not known if this is due to DMPA use or to other related lifestyle factors that have a bearing on fracture rate. In the study, when cumulative exposure to DMPA was calculated, the fracture rate in users who received fewer than 8 injections was higher than that in women who received 8 or more injections. However, it is not clear that cumulative exposure, which may include periods of intermittent use separated by periods of non-use, is a useful measure of risk, as compared to exposure measures based on continuous use.

There were very few osteoporotic fractures fracture sites known to be related to low BMD in the study overall, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was not found to be higher in DMPA users compared to non-users. Importantly, this study could not determine whether use of DMPA has an effect on fracture rate later in life.

This product's label may have been updated. For current full prescribing information, please visit www. This information does not take the place of talking with your gynecologist or other healthcare provider who specializes in women's health. If you have any questions about Depo-Provera CI, ask your healthcare provider. In eight weeks the cure was complete Ibid. Edwin Hale gives a list of symptoms produced in the homeopathic provings. I have selected what I thought were the most promising from the list.

William Boericke , , fifty years later, includes the more proven and characteristic symptoms, but does not add many new ones. Note that asthmatic and respiratory symptoms, so important in traditional literature in both North America and Europe, were not produced by the provings, except for the suggestion of maxillary sinus problems.

Dull, heavy expression of countenance; face appears bloated. Fullness about the temples. Neuralgic pain, of a intermittent form, of the superior maxillary of both sides. Tongue covered with long white fur. Flatus of the stomach, windy eructations, nausea and hiccough. Colic pains in various parts of the abdomen, which is sensitive to pressure confirmed.

Vomiting and purging, like cholera morbus confirmed. Borborygmus abdominal bloating , with much emission of flatus. Diarrhea, with irritable temper; pains in the bowels of children confirmed.

Constipation for three days after the diarrhea. Fullness and tension in the bladder. Pain in the kidneys. Irritation of the prostate confirmed. Dysmenorrhea; menses scanty and painful the first day; weight and fullness in the pelvis McGeorge.

Debility and rheumatic pains in arms. Chronic backache in lumbar region. Lumbago; pain and numbness. Intense pain along the sciatic nerve confirmed, Shelton. Frequent cramps of the calves of the legs. Cramps of the feet when in bed. Rheumatic pains in the knee and ankle joints. Pains alternating with numbness confirmed, Clarke. The European Gnaphaliums suffer from as much or more nomenclatural confusion than the American.

In addition to being mixed up with the Antennarias, they are also crisscrossed with the Helichrysums. And like their American cousins, they are not generally used in professional, or even folk medicine. An exception to all this bother is the marsh everlasting, Gnaphalium uliginosum L.

It has also been markedly free of nomenclatural confusion. The second member of this family that figures in medicine is Gnaphalium dioecum L. Thus, it has a long, but not very extensive, history of medicinal use. A third member of the clan sometimes applied as a medicine is Gnaphalium arenarium, also classified as Helichrysum arenarium. It is native to Germany, Scandinavia, and Russia, as far east as Japan.

The fourth member of the family used in medicine is Gnaphalium stoechas L. The distilled oil is an essential article in aromatherapy. It is known either as helichrysum or immortelle. Interestingly, it is used in a manner similar to the other everlastings. A short review of the medicinal history each of these four plants would help keep them straight. He recommends it administered in sour wine, i. His contemporary, Plinius, recommended it for quinsy or tonsillitis.

The Renaissance herbalists identified gnaphalon with Antennaria dioeca, though the ancients probably used another of plants interchangeably. We can certainly see the dependence on the old authorities. William Turner , 1, identified this plant with the cudweed in Yorkshire and the chafweed in Northumberland.

He recommends it for the bloody flux, menstrual bleeding and running sores. However, when it comes to his account of cudweed, Gerard , does not follow the received tradition at all. Rather, his observations seem to reflect folk tradition:. Gnaphalium boyled in strong lee cleanseth the haire from nits and lice: The same boyled in wine and drunken, killeth wormes and bringeth them fourth, and prevaileth against the bitings and stingings of venomous beasts.

The fume or smoke of the herbe dried, and taken with a funnell, being burned therin, and receiued in such manner as we vse to take the sume of Tabaco, that is, with a crooked pipe made for the same purpose by the Potter, preuaileth against the cough of the lungs, the great ache or paine of the head, and clenseth the brest and inward parts. Gerard also describes the use of the dried everlasting as a posy in the house.

Culpeper , 44 assigns cudweed to our lady Venus, then launches into an account based on conventional literature. He is rather comprehensive in rounding up the received tradition:.

The plants are all astringent, or dry and binding, and therefore profitable for defluxions of rheum from the head, and to stay fluxes of blood wheresoever. The decoction made into red wine and drunk, or the powder taken therein, also helpeth the blood flux, and easeth the torments that come thereby, stayeth the immoderate courses of women, and is also good for inward or outward wounds, hurts and bruises, and helpeth children both of burstings [hernia] and the worms, and the disease called tenesmus, which is an often provocation to the stool, and doing nothing, being either drunk or injected.

The green leaves bruised and laid to any green wound, stayeth the bleeding, and healeth it up quickly; the decoction or juice thereof doth the same, and helpeth old and filthy ulcers quickly. The juice of the herb taken in wine and milk, is as Pliny saith a sovereign remedy against the mumps and quinsy; and further saith, that whosoever shall so take it shall never be troubled with that disease again. This conventional account is followed by a personal observation and case history.

Culpeper , 44 grew up in Sussex, where he evidently observed the following:. I have seen it used only in one place. It is frequent in Charlton Forest, in Sussex, and was given with success for that almost incurable disease, the chin-cough. Beat it up into a conserve, very fine, with a deal of sugar, and let the bigness of a pea be eaten at a time.

Here we again find cudweed used in the treatment of very irascible respiratory problem. William Salmon , one of the last of the Renaissance herbalists, gives the same basic information as Culpeper, less the case history. He defines the qualities of cudweed as temperate with regard to hot or cold, but dry astringent in the third degree.

Although Culpeper was little acquainted with the active use of cudweed, I am informed by Anita Ralph, medical herbalist NIMH , living east of Sussex, in Kent, that cudweed is still used by local people as a remedy for difficult cases of throat infection. Thus we have an instance in which a folk tradition survived beneath the literary radar down to the present time.

The reputation of cudweed was barely kept alive in German professional medicine. The active ingredients of G. Although little used elsewhere in Europe, Gnaphalium uliginosum holds a position of high regard in Russian folk and professional medicine.

The chemical composition has been studied and will be referred to below. The Latin name derives from the noun uligo or uliginis, meaning wetness or dampness. This refers to the habitat where it grows. This contrasts with many other cultures and countries where it is little used, but resembles the North American Indian perspective. It was used in imperial Russia for centuries, most commonly for treating wounds, open sores, and stomach pain.

The immortalizer maintained its reputation largely through the oral tradition, rather than in the printed herbals, but eventually attracted the attention of Russian doctors.

Serious medical experimentation with Gnaphalium uliginosum was begun in the early s and it was adopted into mainstream practice before World War II. A poultice is used externally to stop bleeding. Alcohol or oil extract or infusion is used for wounds, old sores, chemical and thermal burns, dermatomycosis and weeping eczema.

It is used to stop internal bleeding in the intestines or uterus. Sores or abrasions of the uterus and vagina. Infusions are also used to treat nervous excitability, insomnia, headache, tonsillitis, asthma and diabetes. Infusions and foot baths of the decoction are used to treat incipient hypertension, stenocardia and heart palpitations.

The herb or aerial parts of the plant are used. They are collected in August, when the plant is in flower and dried in a shady place. The infusion is made from 1 cup ml of boiling water poured over 1 tablespoon 15 g of the dried herb and steeped for ten minutes. The standard recommendation is 1 cup, 3 times a day. The decoction is made by boiling 2 tablespoons 30g of the dried herb in 1 cup ml of water for 15 minutes.

It may be taken for months. The decoction is used as a foot bath to treat hypertension. Let stand for 30 minutes. Use as a foot bath once a day, a half an hour before bedtime. Evidently, everlasting is here being used as an astringent and, like Helichrysum, a blood thinner. All formulae for hypotonia given by Zevin , include either Crataegus, a mild astringent, or Gnaphalium. The most simple formula is the following:. The Immortalizer is also mentioned in a formula for thrombophlebitis:.

A comparison of Gnaphalium uliginosum with G. The major difference is the use of the former in high blood pressure, hypotonia, and blood coagulation.

This plant, although a member of the greater everlasting tribe, has properties of a different nature from all the rest. It seems to be primarily a bitter which increases secretions from the gall bladder and bile to improve digestion.

Ludwig Kroeber , says that under the common names strawflower and sand immortelle, and the botanical names Gnaphalium arenarium or Helichrysum arenarium, it is associated with chronic affections of the gallbladder, poor secretion of digestive juices and intestinal worms. Zevin has an account of the modern uses of this plant in Russian medicine. They are polymorphous and it is difficult to distinguish between them.

Several species are extracted for the volatile oil, of which the above is the one preferred by Mailhebiau. It is also anti-inflammatory, therefore useful in phlebitis and arteritis. It is mucolytic and recommended in head colds and sinus problems. Mailhebiau uses it with oil of lavender for pain and wound-healing from blows, bruises, and trauma. It is useful externally or internally, in very small doses.

The typical patient is a young woman, blonde, blue-eyed, with very fair, even transparent skin, a delicate constitution, and a dreamy countenance. The holistic standpoint requires us to analyze rabbit tobacco on at least three different levels: We also want to learn from clinical experience. Together these undertakings provide the most complete view of the plant. How can one not like such a beautiful everlasting, with a sweet smell, dead stalks that open and close with the weather sending forth the beautiful scent, with such a rich folklore.

Even the common names alone stir interest. Yet, I was slow to begin my studies of this plant. My interest in rabbit tobacco was stirred by number of experiences. I heard several impressive stories about its use as a medicine which led me to believe that it would prove to be a valuable addition to my practice as an herbalist. I also learned about its magical uses from Indian practitioners. These were confirmed for me in several remarkable dreams I had about the plant. For a while it seemed that rabbit tobacco was everywhere around me, even though it grows far away or so I thought and the books taught.

For years I had been putting bundles of the plant around the house and I found I did not like to be without it. I had been introduced to this herb from half a dozen different directions, yet I still was uncertain about its botanical nomenclature and relationships, so at last I decided I must make it an article of study. The final event which forced me to experiment with this herb as a medicine was an account of healing which was conveyed to me by a student in Virginia.

She was afflicted with asthma from birth to age seven. Her mother treated her with homemade pine oil preparations and other methods which did not cure. In an era when country children in big families often had no store bought toys or personal possessions, Phyllis took to the pillow as a prize possession. It was like a security blanket for her and she slept with it for a year until, I suppose, it disintegrated. By that time she was completely cured of the asthma.

To this day she is free of asthma, though suffering from tendencies to bronchitis in the winter. Knowing the great difficulty in treating children or adults with congenital asthma I considered this to be a remarkable story worth investigating and thus began at last my clinical and literary study of rabbit tobacco. Most plants have one or two unusual and interesting qualities; rabbit tobacco has many. It is used as both a medicine and a tobacco, and is associated with rabbit in both applications.

The scent is both beautiful and complex. It is one of the few medicines which is administered in the form of a pillow. The fresh flower does not have as much scent as the dried, because it is not as open. After it is picked, the flower dries and opens up. The fluffy down with its seed is now ready to be dispersed.

The story is not yet over, however, since changes in the humidity or temperature cause the dried plant, from time to time, to disperse the beautiful scent. This continues to happen for several years after the flowers have been picked.

That night she had a dream. The plant I told her about helped her in the dream to connect with a long deceased friend who had been a mentor to her when she was young.

I left my house in the care of a house sitter one time who, having heard Paul say this, was superstitious about the plant and removed it from my house. That house sitter was not invited back. Fortunately, since that time I have managed to locate rabbit tobacco within an hour of my house.

It seems to be moving westward, probably because there has been more rain in Minnesota in the last several decades. All of us, including botanists and Indian plant pickers, have been surprised by this change. I have found sweet everlasting valuable as a tobacco. I had a dream that the fairies said that I should make my ceremonial tobacco out of three plants. One would help open the door to the other world, the second would help open me up to the millions of possibilities in that world, and the third would help me focus on what I was experiencing in that world.

Ordinary Nicotiana rustica or N. I was already using Nicotiana with the two plants in the dream. One of them was rabbit tobacco, so it seemed likely it would be the plant that would help open up the possibilities. One time I was just smoking the chanupa peace pipe with Nicotiana tabacum and Gnaphalium obtusifolium when Rabbit put in an appearance. The operation of our senses on a plant is most important. Taste, smell, texture, and appearance are all of great importance.

Note the composition of G. Aromatics almost always act on the respiratory tract. Note that the astringence, which is drying, and the sweetness, which is moistening, are opposing qualities. This polarity is also seen in the way in which the very dry flower releases a sweet smell when it is slightly moistened. Damp and dry interplay in this plant. Stimulants are often beneficial for numbness and pain, symptoms brought out in the homeopathic provings. They are also often good for low, putrid conditions, or they prevent these conditions from arising.

Rabbit tobacco is an interesting plant because it is one of the few which is traditionally administered by the sense of smell. In North America we have the tradition of the sweet everlasting pillow; in Europe the helichrysum is used as a volatile oil.

Gnaphalium obtusifolium has a beautiful fragrance which could be analyzed as sweet, resembling vanilla, with just a hint of spice. Interestingly, it reminds one somewhat of the smell of sweetfern Comptonia asplenifolia , which is also found growing in the same environment: However, sweet everlasting is found on acid soils associated more with oaks, while sweetfern is found on those with more pine.

The pioneers in fact used comptonia with milk to make a spicy tea. The property that dose not come across in the scent of rabbit tobacco is the astringence, so it must be supposed that the medicinal pillow does not pass this on to the patient. The respiratory tract is especially suited to inhalation therapy and it seems likely that the compounds associated with the sweet and spicy smells are the active ingredients here.

But what is the avenue of activity? From watching and talking to persons responding to rabbit tobacco I have concluded that it relaxes the muscles, but it may also penetrate through the alveoli and open up the oxygen exchange with the bloodstream.

Plants with a hard stalk that remains long after summer is over, like this one, are presumably high in minerals. Interestingly, rabbit tobacco is somewhat softer and gentler to the touch than many of the plant stalks which survive in winter. That indicates an unusual strength associated with softness.

I have had a limited number of experiences with this remedy up to this point. One thing I can say for sure: His complexion was pale, dark, and sallow. He looked as if he did not get enough oxygen. The lungs and tongue were dry. After giving him some Gnaphalium obtusifolium tincture he took some deep breaths, experienced a pain in the left-center of the chest, and began to look less pale.

The asthmatic symptoms diminished though he did not like the pain. Several weeks latter I was consulted by one of my long term clients.

She had asthma since childhood and had a pale, dark, sallow complexion very similar to the former case, so I thought of rabbit tobacco. She was a smoker. She felt relief from its use, but not cure. An apprentice, who was sitting in at the time, also had asthma and a sallow, pale, though not dark complexion. She tried rabbit tobacco and also found it helpful, but not permanently curative.

Both began to breath deeper and look less pallid and sallow when they took the first dose of rabbit tobacco. That fall I collected enough rabbit tobacco to make a pillow, following the folk medical custom. I gave it to the first of the two clients mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

She has used it for about three months, and feels very good about it. Her asthma is slowly getting better. She uses the inhaler a lot less.

If a dog chases the rabbit too long it can get blisters on the skin, or little tears with bits of blood in the fur. I guess you could say that it is like a refuge for the wounded small animal part of me. Think of the little scared rabbit. The chemical composition of Gnaphalium uliginosum L. It contains tannins up to 4 percent ; volatile oils 0. It contains no glycosides, saponins, or bitter principles A. At first I was not able to string together the odd assortment of signatures, folk uses, traditions, subjective experiences, popular names, tastes, symptoms, and actions of rabbit tobacco into a unified conception of the plant.

Rabbit tobacco did not help this woman a great deal, but did it help another woman who felt exactly the same way. The connection with the sensitive skin was brought out in another case. She noted that the woman had used a lot of prednisone and that this made the skin thin and weak when it came to give off a sweat. She recommended a stiff decoction of yarrow to waken up the skin, while I thought of rabbit tobacco.

So rabbit tobacco is suited to persons with a delicate respiratory apparatus and delicate, thin skin. There is also a nervous delicacy seen in the problems with sciatica and neuralgia, which the plant easily produced in the homeopathic provings.

The sweetness, which is the strongest taste, would indicate an ability to strengthen and build tissue, while the spiciness would be slightly warming and stimulating. The astringence, which is very mild, would tone the tissues slightly, making them less permeable as well.

It is likely that the American rabbit tobacco also thins the blood and acts on the cardiovascular system like its close cousin marsh everlasting or like the slightly more distant helichrysum. Today, when we are confronted with so many delicate children suffering from asthma and food sensitivities it may be that the rabbit tobacco could prove highly efficacious.

Certainly, it has proved itself to be something of use, either curatively or palliatively, in that extremely difficult-to-treat and unpleasant condition, congenital asthma. It seems to have a general positive effect on many respiratory conditions, as indicated by the esteemed position it held in the cough formulas of Tommie Bass. His association of it with wild cherry makes a great deal of sense, since this is an herb I would associate with histaminic over-activity, respiratory sensitivity, and food allergy.

It may also have a positive effect on circulatory congestion, a problem so common in those of increasing years. In the very elderly we often find the thin skin and delicacy of constitution that this plant demonstrates. When I understand a plant in a complete fashion I usually find an exact correspondence between the physical properties of the plant, the psychological traits associated with it, and the outstanding signature or physical expression of the plant.

These three pictures together, in unity, point to the core personality of the plant. I have confidence when I have all three together, rather than one or two. Although the preceding discussion offers hints of resonance between different levels and portraits of the plant, I would point out the following as the most precise correspondences:.

Rabbit tobacco is used for congenital defect or weakness, i. It is used when a legacy from a mentor or ancestor is not passed on and there is a break in the psychological inheritance.

Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica. Boericke and Tafel, Clarke, John Henry, M. A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica. Health Science Press, Houghton Mifflin Company, Reprint of the Manchester edition of Edited and Translated by Robert T. Bear and Company, Privately published, no imprimatur, Travels in North America.

Revised from original Swedish and ed. Translated by the French by Susan Y. Daniel Company Limited, Reprint of the 1 v. Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees. Charles and Randy Elder, Booksellers and Publishers,

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